James P O'Neill

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Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) mutation frequency (M(f)) was studied in workers at a polybutadiene rubber production facility in Yanshan, China. Exposed workers included for study were active either as process analysts, who sampled butadiene production process lines and analyzed product by gas chromatography, or as process operators,(More)
While 1,3-butadiene is carcinogenic in rodents, cancer causation in humans is less certain. We examined a spectrum of genotoxic outcomes in 41 butadiene polymer production workers and 38 non-exposed controls, in China, to explore the role of butadiene in human carcinogenesis. Because in vitro studies suggest that genetic polymorphisms in glutathione(More)
Malathion is a widely used pesticide with high potential for human exposure. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with chronic environmental exposures to pesticides have increased risks of various hematological malignancies. The genotoxic data to date have been somewhat inconclusive with regard to malathion exposure. We have used a cell cloning(More)
Transplacental exposure to carcinogenic air pollutants from the combustion of fossil fuels is a growing health concern, given evidence of the heightened susceptibility of the fetus. These mutagenic/carcinogenic pollutants include aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that bind to DNA, forming chemical-DNA adducts. We have investigated(More)
We examined a spectrum of genotoxic and other outcomes in 41 butadiene-polymer production workers and 38 nonexposed controls, in China, to explore the role of butadiene in human carcinogenesis. Among butadiene-exposed workers, median air exposure was 2 ppm (6-h TWA), due largely to intermittent high-level exposures. Compared to unexposed subjects,(More)
Mutations in the gene encoding hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) cause Lesch-Nyhan disease, which is characterized by hyperuricemia, severe motor disability, and self-injurious behavior. Mutations in the same gene also cause less severe clinical phenotypes with only some portions of the full syndrome. A large database of 271 mutations(More)
We have used the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (APRT; 16q24) to investigate the mechanisms of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in normal human somatic cells in vivo. APRT-deficient (APRT-/-, APRT-/0) T lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of four obligate APRT heterozygotes (APRT+/-) with characterized germ-line mutations were selected in medium(More)
We have investigated the molecular effects of passive maternal cigarette exposure in a newborn population and consider the possible implications of the observed genetic changes in the development of neoplastic diseases in children. We present a distribution analysis of somatic mutational events in a reporter gene, HPRT, in cord blood T lymphocytes from(More)
In this paper, we have compared mutant frequency data at the hprt locus in circulating T-lymphocytes from four large datasets obtained in the UK (Sussex), the USA (Vermont), France (Paris) and The Netherlands (Leiden). In total, data from > 500 non-exposed individuals ranging in age from newborns (cord blood samples) to > 80 years old have been included in(More)
Mutations were evaluated in workers in an iron foundry with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), measured by personal and area monitoring, ranging from < 5 to 60 ng/m3 of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Mutation at the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) and glycophorin A (GPA) loci (measures of molecular effect in lymphocytes and(More)