James P Mcallister

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The aim in this study was to investigate whether physical exercise could induce astroglial proliferation in the frontoparietal cortex and dorsolateral striatum where extensive angiogenesis had been found after exercise in previous studies. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=48) were used in four experimental groups. Animals were exercised 30 min each day on(More)
The treatment of hydrocephalus by cerebrospinal fluid shunting is plagued by ventricular catheter obstruction. Shunts can become obstructed by cells originating from tissue normal to the brain or by pathological cells in the cerebrospinal fluid for a variety of reasons. In this review, the authors examine ventricular catheter obstruction and identify some(More)
Ventricular catheter drainage holes of shunt systems used to treat hydrocephalus obstruct with tissue commonly comprising monocytes/macrophages, astrocytes, and giant cells. Despite high rates of obstruction, very few studies have manipulated drainage hole orientation, number, position, or diameter. By altering the hole diameter but maintaining a constant(More)
The pathophysiology of congenital and neonatal hydrocephalus is not well understood although the prognosis for patients with this disorder is far from optimal. A major obstacle to advancing our knowledge of the causes of this disorder and the cellular responses that accompany it is the multifactorial nature of hydrocephalus. Not only is the epidemiology(More)
Although hydrocephalus is a multifactorial disorder, the processes responsible for neurologic impairment can be classified into primary and secondary mechanisms. Primary mechanisms include mechanical compression and stretching of brain parenchyma, ischemia and anoxia, cerebral edema, and blood brain barrier dysfunction. These processes lead to secondary(More)
Drainage and diversion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through shunt systems is the most common treatment for hydrocephalus, but complications due to tissue obstruction of the catheter occur in up to 61% of patients. Although shunt systems have undergone limited technological advancements to resist mammalian cell adhesion, there is a need to further reduce(More)
In an effort to identify critical gaps in the prevailing knowledge of hydrocephalus, the authors formulated 10 key questions. 1) How do we define hydrocephalus? 2) How is cerebrosinal fluid (CSF) absorbed normally and what are the causes of CSF malabsorption in hydrocephalus? 3) Why do the ventricles dilate in communicating hydrocephalus? 4) What happens to(More)
OBJECTIVE Exaggerated nocturnal intracranial pressure (ICP) dynamics are commonly observed in hydrocephalic children with a compromise of CSF compensatory reserve capacity. Successful shunting restores this cerebrospinal reserve. We used ICP overnight monitoring combined with positional maneuvers in complex hydrocephalic children with a suspected shunt(More)
As a sequel to our previous descriptions of the pathological changes induced by hydrocephalus in the infantile cerebral cortex, the study presented here has evaluated the effects of surgical decompression on cortical cytology and cytoarchitecture. Hydrocephalus was induced in 14 kittens by the intracisternal injection of kaolin at 4 to 11 days of age. Nine(More)