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INTRODUCTION The Irish ALS register is a valuable resource for examining survival factors in Irish ALS patients. Cox regression has become the default tool for survival analysis, but recently new classes of flexible parametric survival analysis tools known as Royston-Parmar models have become available. METHODS We employed Cox proportional hazards and(More)
BACKGROUND Increased urinary concentrations of pentacarboxyl-, precopro- and copro-porphyrins have been associated with prolonged mercury (Hg) exposure in adults, and comparable increases have been attributed to Hg exposure in children with autism (AU). OBJECTIVES This study was designed to measure and compare urinary porphyrin concentrations in(More)
Mercury has been a known as a toxic substance for centuries. Whilst the clinical features of acute mercury poisoning have been well described, chronic low dose exposure to mercury remains poorly characterised and its potential role in various chronic disease states remains controversial. Low molecular weight thiols, i.e. sulfhydryl containing molecules such(More)
BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis shares characteristics with some cancers, such as onset being more common in later life, progression usually being rapid, the disease affecting a particular cell type, and showing complex inheritance. We used a model originally applied to cancer epidemiology to investigate the hypothesis that amyotrophic lateral(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether physical activity is a risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS From February 2008 to April 2012, 652 patients with ALS from European population-based registries (France, Ireland, Italy, United Kingdom, Serbia) and 1,166 population controls (matched for age, sex, and residency) were assessed. Upon direct(More)
Goat kids from a herd endemically infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) virus were raised according to 3 methods. One group of ten goat kids was removed from infected does at birth before suckling or licking by the doe could occur (snatch birth technique). Kids were fed on goat colostrum, which had been heated to 57 degrees C for ten minutes(More)
BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive debilitating neurodegenerative disease, with a life expectancy of 3-5 years from first symptom. There is compelling evidence that those who attend a multidisciplinary clinic experience improved survival. The purpose of the study was to explore the survival of patients with ALS ascertained(More)
Reports from human case studies indicate a half-life for inorganic mercury in the brain in the order of years-contradicting older radioisotope studies that estimated half-lives in the order of weeks to months in duration. This study systematically reviews available evidence on the retention time of inorganic mercury in humans and primates to better(More)
OBJECTIVE Few spatial cluster analyses of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) incidence have been conducted on prospective incident population-based cohorts; we report results of a formal cluster analysis of the Irish ALS cohort from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2013. METHODS We identified 1,684 incident cases from the Irish ALS register. Population(More)