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Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a clinically validated serum biomarker that distinguishes relapsing central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disorders related to NMO from multiple sclerosis. This autoantibody targets astrocytic aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels. Clinical, radiological, and immunopathological data suggest(More)
BACKGROUND Autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 astrocytic water channel is restricted to serum and CSF of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and related CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders (relapsing optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis). NMO-typical lesions are distinct from MS-typical lesions. Aquaporin-4 is(More)
BACKGROUND In adult patients, autoantibodies targeting the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are a biomarker for a spectrum of CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders with predilection for optic nerves and spinal cord (neuromyelitis optica [NMO]). Here we describe the neurologic, serologic, and radiographic findings associated with CNS AQP4 autoimmunity in(More)
BACKGROUND Recent reports support a pathogenic role in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-specific autoantibody (NMO-IgG). Neuromyelitis optica is an inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system disease, usually relapsing, that causes variable degrees of attack-related disability. The NMO-IgG binds in vitro to the extracellular(More)
OBJECTIVE To 1) determine, using contemporary recombinant antigen-based assays, the aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-immunoglobulin G (IgG) detection rate in sequential sera of patients assigned a clinical diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) but initially scored negative by tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay; and 2) evaluate the impact of serostatus(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the sensitivity and specificity of immunofluorescence (IF) and immunoprecipitation (IP) assays using green fluorescent protein-tagged aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in 6335 patients for whom serological evaluation was requested on a service basis. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory (Rochester, Minnesota)(More)
BACKGROUND Antibodies have been implicated in the pathogenicity of multiple sclerosis by findings of immunoglobulins in patients' CSF and often IgG and complement in lesions, and by a 2012 report that nearly half of patients' serum samples contain IgG specific for a glial potassium-channel, KIR4.1. We aimed to establish the frequency of KIR4.1-binding IgG(More)
OBJECTIVE To define, using assays of optimized sensitivity and specificity, the most informative specimen type for aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) detection. METHODS Results were reviewed from longitudinal service testing for AQP4-IgG among specimens submitted to the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory from 101,065 individual patients. Paired(More)
Objective Neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IDD) with a specific biomarker, aquaporin-4-IgG. Prior NMO/NMOSD epidemiological studies are limited by lack of aquaporin-4-IgG seroprevalence assessment, absence of population-based USA studies and under-representation of blacks. To overcome these(More)
INTRODUCTION Paraneoplastic autoantibody screening of 150,000 patient sera by tissue-based immunofluorescence incidentally revealed 170 with unsuspected signal recognition particle (SRP) immunoglobulin G (IgG), which is a recognized biomarker of autoimmune myopathy. Of the 77 patients with available information, 54 had myopathy. We describe the(More)