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Theories of internalization typically suggest that self-perceptions of the "causes" of (i.e. reasons for) behavior are differentiated along a continuum of autonomy that contains identifiable gradations. A model of perceived locus of causality (PLOC) is developed, using children's self-reported reasons for acting. In Project 1, external, introjected,(More)
Research on individual differences demonstrates that children's perceived control exerts a strong effect on their academic achievement and that, in turn, children's actual school performance influences their sense of control. At the same time, developmental research shows systematic age-graded changes in the processes that children use to regulate and(More)
This study examined the empirical validity of a model of human motivation as it applies to school success and failure in 3 independent samples of 10- to 16-year-old African-American youth. Specifically, we assessed how indicators of context, self, and action relate to measures of risk and resilient outcomes in school in 3 different samples, using 3(More)
This study examined the contribution of perceived control and autonomy to children's self-reported behavior and emotion in the classroom (N = 246 children ages 8-10 years). Multiple regression analyses revealed unique effects of autonomy over and above the strong effects of perceived control. In addition, both sets of perceptions (and their interaction)(More)
Since its birth in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the field of comprehensive community initiatives (CCIs) has been struggling to find evaluation strategies and methodologies that correspond well to the goals and designs of the initiatives themselves. Up to this point, CCIs have had three general options to follow: (1) retreat to process documentation of(More)
This article presents a theory of change approach to planning educational reform initiatives with a focus on district level efforts. Using examples from ongoing consulting work with urban school districts, we walk through steps in a planning process that can yield a theory of change that meets 4 criteria: plausible , doable, testable, and meaningful. The(More)
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