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Both pro- and antioncogenic properties have been attributed to EphA2 kinase. We report that a possible cause for this apparent paradox is diametrically opposite roles of EphA2 in regulating cell migration and invasion. While activation of EphA2 with its ligand ephrin-A1 inhibited chemotactic migration of glioma and prostate cancer cells, EphA2(More)
The stability of transferrin receptor (TfR) mRNA is regulated by iron availability. When a human plasma-cytoma cell line (ARH-77) is treated with an iron source (hemin), the TfR mRNA is destabilized and a shorter TfR RNA appears. A similar phenomenon is also observed in mouse fibroblasts expressing a previously characterized iron-regulated human TfR mRNA(More)
Recently, it has been demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) targeted to an engineered transferrin receptor enables imaging of gene expression. However, the relatively high doses of iron oxides used indicated the need for improved MR imaging probes to monitor changes in gene expression(More)
The human transferrin receptor (hTfR) has been used as a model molecular target to direct therapeutic agents to tumor cells and to shuttle drugs across the blood-brain-barrier. We show in the current study that receptor expression and regulation can be visualized by NMR imaging, when the receptor is probed with a sterically protected iron containing(More)
The iron responsive element (IRE) is a approximately 30 nucleotide RNA hairpin that is located in the 5' untranslated region of all ferritin mRNAs and in the 3' untranslated region of all transferrin receptor mRNAs. The IREs are bound by two related IRE-binding proteins (IRPs) which help control intracellular levels of iron by regulating the expression of(More)
Efficient drug delivery to tumors is of ever-increasing importance. Single-visit diagnosis and treatment sessions are the goal of future theranostics. In this work, a noncovalent PDT cancer drug-gold nanoparticle (Au NP) conjugate system performed a rapid drug release and deep penetration of the drug into tumors within hours. The drug delivery mechanism of(More)
The management of CNS tumors is limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a vascular interface that restricts the passage of most molecules from the blood into the brain. Here we show that phage particles targeted with certain ligand motifs selected in vivo from a combinatorial peptide library can cross the BBB under normal and pathological conditions.(More)
PURPOSE To quantitate and characterize the expression of an engineered human transferrin receptor (ETR) as a marker gene by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS Rat gliosarcoma 9L cells stably expressing ETR (ETR+) were used, with nontransfected (ETR-) cells serving as controls. A conjugate of transferrin and monocrystalline iron(More)
We have developed a near-infrared (NIR) probe that targets cells overexpressing the EGF receptor (EGFR) for imaging glioblastoma brain tumors in live subjects. A peptide specific for the EGFR was modified with various lengths of monodiscrete polyethylene glycol (PEG) units and a NIR Cy5.5 fluorescence dye. The lead compound, compound 2, with one unit of PEG(More)