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From April through June 1997, 29 previously healthy children aged <6 years (median, 1.5 years) in Sarawak, Malaysia, died of rapidly progressive cardiorespiratory failure during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused primarily by enterovirus 71 (EV71). The case children were hospitalized after a short illness (median duration, 2 days) that(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) (genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae), a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), may also cause severe neurological diseases, such as encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like paralysis. To examine the genetic diversity and rate of evolution of EV71, we have determined and analyzed complete VP1 sequences (891 nucleotides)(More)
Timely investigation of children with acute flaccid paralysis, with collection of stool specimens for virus isolation, is the primary strategy used to detect wild poliovirus circulation. To determine the optimal timing of stool specimen collection, studies of wild and vaccine poliovirus excretion published between 1935 and 1995 were reviewed. Data were(More)
In February 2006, a live, oral, human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) was licensed for use among U.S. infants. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends routine vaccination of U.S. infants with 3 doses of this rotavirus vaccine administered orally at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. The first dose should be administered between ages(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of acute lower respiratory tract disease among the elderly, but national estimates of the burden of this disease have not been made. To estimate the morbidity, mortality, and medical costs of RSV-associated pneumonia among US elderly, national hospital discharge data, vital statistics, etiologic(More)
Since first described in 1974, enterovirus 71 infections have been associated with severe neurologic disease, and widespread infection was suspected in 1987. To investigate enterovirus 71 activity further, data were reviewed for isolations reported nationally during 1977-1991, virology laboratories were contacted regarding isolations during 1985-1989, and(More)
OBJECTIVES Routine vaccination of US infants against rotavirus was implemented in 2006, prompting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention New Vaccine Surveillance Network to begin population-based acute gastroenteritis surveillance among US children<3 years of age. This surveillance system establishes baseline estimates of rotavirus disease burden(More)
BACKGROUND Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has not been used in the United States since 2000. Type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) was identified in September 2005, from an unvaccinated Amish infant hospitalized in Minnesota with severe combined immunodeficiency. An investigation was conducted to determine the source of the virus and its means of(More)
Decision analytic modeling of polio risk management policies after eradication may help inform decisionmakers about the quantitative tradeoffs implied by various options. Given the significant dynamic complexity and uncertainty involving posteradication decisions, this article aims to clarify the structure of a decision analytic model developed to help(More)
OBJECTIVES We assessed the costs, risks, and benefits of possible future major policy decisions on vaccination, surveillance, response plans, and containment following global eradication of wild polioviruses. METHODS We developed a decision analytic model to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and net benefits of risk management options for(More)