James P. Alexander

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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) (genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae), a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), may also cause severe neurological diseases, such as encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like paralysis. To examine the genetic diversity and rate of evolution of EV71, we have determined and analyzed complete VP1 sequences (891 nucleotides)(More)
From April through June 1997, 29 previously healthy children aged <6 years (median, 1.5 years) in Sarawak, Malaysia, died of rapidly progressive cardiorespiratory failure during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused primarily by enterovirus 71 (EV71). The case children were hospitalized after a short illness (median duration, 2 days) that(More)
Since first described in 1974, enterovirus 71 infections have been associated with severe neurologic disease, and widespread infection was suspected in 1987. To investigate enterovirus 71 activity further, data were reviewed for isolations reported nationally during 1977-1991, virology laboratories were contacted regarding isolations during 1985-1989, and(More)
In February 2006, a live, oral, human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) was licensed for use among U.S. infants. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends routine vaccination of U.S. infants with 3 doses of this rotavirus vaccine administered orally at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. The first dose should be administered between ages(More)
We have measured the branching fraction and photon energy spectrum for the radiative penguin process b → sγ. We find B(b → sγ) = (3.21 ± 0.43 ± 0.27 −0.10) × 10 , where the errors are statistical, systematic, and from theory corrections. We obtain first and second moments of the photon energy spectrum above 2.0 GeV, 〈Eγ〉 = 2.346± 0.032± 0.011 GeV, and 〈E(More)
OBJECTIVES Routine vaccination of US infants against rotavirus was implemented in 2006, prompting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention New Vaccine Surveillance Network to begin population-based acute gastroenteritis surveillance among US children<3 years of age. This surveillance system establishes baseline estimates of rotavirus disease burden(More)
Timely investigation of children with acute flaccid paralysis, with collection of stool specimens for virus isolation, is the primary strategy used to detect wild poliovirus circulation. To determine the optimal timing of stool specimen collection, studies of wild and vaccine poliovirus excretion published between 1935 and 1995 were reviewed. Data were(More)
OBJECTIVES We assessed the costs, risks, and benefits of possible future major policy decisions on vaccination, surveillance, response plans, and containment following global eradication of wild polioviruses. METHODS We developed a decision analytic model to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and net benefits of risk management options for(More)
Decision analytic modeling of polio risk management policies after eradication may help inform decisionmakers about the quantitative tradeoffs implied by various options. Given the significant dynamic complexity and uncertainty involving posteradication decisions, this article aims to clarify the structure of a decision analytic model developed to help(More)
From January, 1988, to March, 1989, a widespread outbreak (118 cases) of poliomyelitis type 1 occurred in Oman. Incidence of paralytic disease was highest in children younger than 2 years (87/100,000) despite an immunisation programme that recently had raised coverage with 3 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) among 12-month-old children from 67% to 87%.(More)