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Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms--such as corals and some plankton--will(More)
Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2) is altering the seawater chemistry of the world's oceans with consequences for marine biota. Elevated partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2) is causing the calcium carbonate saturation horizon to shoal in many regions, particularly in high latitudes and regions that intersect with pronounced hypoxic zones. The(More)
Surface nutrient concentrations in the Southern Ocean are an important indicator of the atmosphere ocean chemical balance that played a key role in ice-age reduction of atmospheric pC0, and would play a role in any Fe fertilization scenario for increasing oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO,. The response of the ocean and atmosphere to a scenario of extreme(More)
Ocean was much more vigorous in the period from ϳ1350 to 1880 A.D. than in the recent past. Our simulations reflect primarily late–20th century oceanographic conditions and support the conclusion of a subordinate role for deep convection in the Southern Ocean during this time period (21). Our conclusion that present-day Southern Ocean uptake of(More)
[1] New radiocarbon and chlorofluorocarbon-11 data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment are used to assess a suite of 19 ocean carbon cycle models. We use the distributions and inventories of these tracers as quantitative metrics of model skill and find that only about a quarter of the suite is consistent with the new data-based metrics. This should(More)
  • Silvia Ellis, David Lagakos, Alisdair Mckay, Jason Bram, James Orr, Carol Rapaport
  • 2002
City and the nation. Almost 3,000 lives were lost, and more than 30 million square feet of office space in Lower Manhattan was damaged or destroyed. The loss of workers, physical capital, and infrastructure reduced the productive potential of the city's economy and disrupted the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. Damage to the transportation and(More)
  • Andrew Haughwout, James Orr, David Bedoll, S E C O N D D I S T R I C T H I G H L I G H T S, E R A L R E S E Rv E B A N K O F N E W Y O
  • 2008
The price of vacant land in an urban area is a fundamental indicator of an area's attractiveness. However, because the value of vacant land is hard to measure, indirect methods are typically used to gauge prices. A more direct approach to measuring land prices, using a unique data set, reveals that the price of unimproved land in the New York area is high,(More)
  • E R A L R E S E R V E B A N K O F N E W Y O, James Orr, Robert Rich, Rae Rosen
  • 1999
Second Second district highlights Second district highlights The ability to identify periods of expansion and contraction associated with business cycles has widespread implications for the economy. If consumers perceive wage growth as being strong and job security high, for example, they might make more purchases, whereas businesses that sense that the(More)
he terrorist attack on the World Trade Center claimed close to 3,000 lives and caused billions of dollars in property damage. In the aftermath, New York City's economy contracted briefly but sharply: many businesses were forced to shut down, mostly temporarily, and tens of thousands of workers were either dislocated for a short time or lost their jobs(More)