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ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Drug resistance in malaria is a recurring subject that threatens public health globally. There is an urgent need to seek new antimalarial agents. This study seeking new antimalarials from medicinal plants is guided by ethnobotany. MATERIALS AND METHODS Medicinal plants of the Luo and Kuria ethnic groups of Kenya with high(More)
The binding characteristics of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins of types B, C1, and F to gangliosides was studied by thin layer chromatography plate and microtiter plate methods at low (10 mM NaCl in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.2) or high (150 mM NaCl in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.2) ionic strengths and at 0 or 37 degrees C. The three types of toxins(More)
The toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813 (C-6813) was purified 1,009-fold from the culture supernatant in an overall yield of 30%. The specific toxicity was 1.1 X 10(7) mouse minimum lethal doses per mg of protein. The toxin had a molecular weight of 144,000, composed of the light and heavy chains with molecular weights of 52,000 and 92,000,(More)
Resistance to human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus L, induced by feeding on rabbits immunized with an extract of louse gut was studied. The mortality of lice fed on immunized rabbits was 73%, significantly higher than that of lice fed on control rabbits (52%) (P < 0.01). The proportion of dead nymphs and female lice with ruptured guts was(More)
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19(More)
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of(More)
Immunization of rabbits with a faecal extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus) induced a high titre of specific IgG. The mean weight of blood taken by females fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower (29%) than taken by females fed on the control rabbits. The mean number of eggs per female fed on the immunized rabbits was(More)
BACKGROUND The Quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra) is used as a medicinal plant among traditional communities in many countries to manage tumors and other diseases associated with oxidative stress. To validate indigenous knowledge and possibly position this herb for technology uptake and utilization, we established the level of antioxidant activity in R.(More)
1. Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and(More)
1. Larval development in Glossina species occurs in utero with the mature third instar larva being deposited after a developmental period of 7 days. 2. In this study, the patterns of cuticular protein synthesis during larval development were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. 3. From the results, four types of cuticle proteins were identified:(More)