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UNLABELLED Clann has been developed in order to provide methods of investigating phylogenetic information through the application of supertrees. AVAILABILITY Clann has been precompiled for Linux, Apple Macintosh and Windows operating systems and is available from http://bioinf.may.ie/software/clann. Source code is available on request from the authors. (More)
All known visual pigments in Neuralia (Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Bilateria) are composed of an opsin (a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor), and a light-sensitive chromophore, generally retinal. Accordingly, opsins play a key role in vision. There is no agreement on the relationships of the neuralian opsin subfamilies, and clarifying their(More)
Archaebacterial halophiles (Haloarchaea) are oxygen-respiring heterotrophs that derive from methanogens--strictly anaerobic, hydrogen-dependent autotrophs. Haloarchaeal genomes are known to have acquired, via lateral gene transfer (LGT), several genes from eubacteria, but it is yet unknown how many genes the Haloarchaea acquired in total and, more(More)
Current phylogenetic methods attempt to account for evolutionary rate variation across characters in a matrix. This is generally achieved by the use of sophisticated evolutionary models, combined with dense sampling of large numbers of characters. However, systematic biases and superimposed substitutions make this task very difficult. Model adequacy can(More)
Chloroplasts arose from cyanobacteria, mitochondria arose from proteobacteria. Both organelles have conserved their prokaryotic biochemistry, but their genomes are reduced, and most organelle proteins are encoded in the nucleus. Endosymbiotic theory posits that bacterial genes in eukaryotic genomes entered the eukaryotic lineage via organelle ancestors. It(More)
With the number of fully sequenced genomes increasing steadily, there is greater interest in performing large-scale phylogenomic analyses from large numbers of individual gene families. Maximum likelihood (ML) has been shown repeatedly to be one of the most accurate methods for phylogenetic construction. Recently, there have been a number of algorithmic(More)
MOTIVATION In recent years there has been increased interest in producing large and accurate phylogenetic trees using statistical approaches. However for a large number of taxa, it is not feasible to construct large and accurate trees using only a single processor. A number of specialized parallel programs have been produced in an attempt to address the(More)
During the late 1980s, the molecular biology community became aware that the words 'homology' and 'similarity' were being used in much of the scientific literature as though they were synonyms. This situation was clarified [1] and their current usage is usually appropriate. Recently, we have felt a similar need for standard and indeed, new, terminology for(More)
The mechanisms that underlie the origin of major prokaryotic groups are poorly understood. In principle, the origin of both species and higher taxa among prokaryotes should entail similar mechanisms--ecological interactions with the environment paired with natural genetic variation involving lineage-specific gene innovations and lineage-specific gene(More)