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Five weeks after commencing highly active antiretroviral therapy, a 12-year-old boy with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection presented with acute cerebellar dysfunction and hemiparesis. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction for JC virus and magnetic resonance imaging of the(More)
We describe the engineering of a human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) p24-immunoglobulin A (IgA) antigen-antibody fusion molecule for therapeutic purposes and its enhancing effect on fused antigen expression in tobacco plants. Although many recombinant proteins have been expressed in transgenic plants as vaccine candidates, low levels of expression are a(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency, risk factors, and clinical features of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) complications in HIV-infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS A retrospective study of children started on HAART between August 2002 and November 2004 was completed. RESULTS Six percent (21/352; 95% CI(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically improves outcomes for children in Africa; however excellent adherence is required for treatment success. This study describes the utility of different measures of adherence in detecting lapses in infants and young children in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS In a prospective cohort of 122 HIV-infected(More)
In this study, we demonstrate that the folding and assembly of IgG in transgenic tobacco plants is orchestrated by BiP (binding protein), an endoplasmic reticulum resident chaperone. Expression of BiP and calreticulin was examined in transgenic tobacco plants that express immunoglobulin chains, either singly or in combination to form IgG antibody. BiP mRNA(More)
SETTING Rifampicin may reduce plasma efavirenz concentrations by inducing the expression of the cytochrome P450 2B6, which metabolizes efavirenz. However, there is no data in pediatric patient populations. METHODS We measured plasma efavirenz concentrations in 15 children during and after rifampicin-based antitubercular treatment. They were receiving(More)
In a study of 38 hips showing only minor abnormality on the AP radiograph, it was found that the most reliable sign of an early slip was blurring of the junction between the metaphysis and the growth plate. The diagnosis could not be made on the AP film alone in 11% of cases and it is recommended that a routine lateral radiograph is obtained when slipped(More)
OBJECTIVE Rifampicin dramatically reduces plasma lopinavir concentrations (coformulated with ritonavir in a 4:1 ratio). A study in healthy adult volunteers showed that this reduction could be ameliorated if additional ritonavir is given. We evaluated the effect of additional ritonavir on plasma lopinavir concentrations in HIV-infected children receiving(More)
OBJECTIVE Efavirenz-containing regimens using concentration-controlled dosing have been shown to provide potent antiretroviral activity in children. In many settings, concentration-controlled dosing is not available. In this study, efavirenz plasma concentrations were evaluated in South African HIV-infected children receiving efavirenz-based antiretroviral(More)
OBJECTIVES An efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen is preferred for children more than 3 years of age with tuberculosis. However, rifampin, a key component of antituberculosis therapy, induces CYP2B6. An increased dose of efavirenz is recommended in adults weighing more than 50 kg who require rifampin, but there is scant information in(More)