James Nuttall

Learn More
The response of wheat crops to elevated CO 2 (eCO 2) was measured and modelled with the Australian Grains Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment experiment, located at Horsham, Australia. Treatments included CO 2 by water, N and temperature. The location represents a semi-arid environment with a seasonal VPD of around 0.5 kPa. Over 3 years, the observed mean biomass at(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically improves outcomes for children in Africa; however excellent adherence is required for treatment success. This study describes the utility of different measures of adherence in detecting lapses in infants and young children in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS In a prospective cohort of 122 HIV-infected(More)
BACKGROUND Plants may represent excellent alternatives to classical heterologous protein expression systems, especially for the production of biopharmaceuticals and vaccine components. Modern vaccines are becoming increasingly complex, with the incorporation of multiple antigens. Approaches towards developing an HIV vaccine appear to confirm this, with a(More)
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in paediatric patients with bloodstream infections. The epidemiology of S. aureus bacteraemia, however, has not been well documented in children in South Africa. METHODS A retrospective study was conducted at a children's hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, to investigate the epidemiology of S.(More)
We have assessed the ability of the plant secretory pathway to handle the expression of complex heterologous proteins by investigating the fate of a hybrid immunoglobulin A/G in tobacco cells. Although plant cells can express large amounts of the antibody, a relevant proportion is normally lost to vacuolar sorting and degradation. Here we show that the(More)
Despite the use of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination for many years, infants and young children exposed to adults with infectious forms of tuberculosis (TB) are at high risk of developing complicated TB disease. This risk is much higher among HIV-infected children, and data on BCG protective efficacy in HIV-infected children is lacking. Recent(More)
Guidelines:Guidelines for the management of acute meningitis in children and adults in South Africa This guideline provides a rational and cost-effective approach to patients with acute meningitis, which causes considerable morbidity and mortality, predominantly in children.There are many aetiologies, but a small number of bacteria and viruses account for(More)
BACKGROUND The historic use of full-dose ritonavir as part of an unboosted protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapy regimen in some South African children contributes to the frequent accumulation of major PI resistance mutations. METHODS In order to describe the prevalence of major PI resistance in children failing antiretroviral therapy and(More)
BACKGROUND South Africa introduced 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in April 2009 using a 2 + 1 schedule (6 and 14 weeks and 9 months). We estimated the effectiveness of ≥2 PCV7 doses against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected children. METHODS IPD (pneumococcus identified from(More)