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The MAD-related (MADR) family includes the sma-2, These proteins are highly Division of Gastroenterology conserved across species, but have no known structural The Hospital for Sick Children motifs and bear no resemblance to components of other Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8 signaling pathways. All members of the family share Canada certain structural domains(More)
TGFbeta signaling is initiated when the type I receptor phosphorylates the MAD-related protein, Smad2, on C-terminal serine residues. This leads to Smad2 association with Smad4, translocation to the nucleus, and regulation of transcriptional responses. Here we demonstrate that Smad7 is an inhibitor of TGFbeta signaling. Smad7 prevents TGFbeta-dependent(More)
T he existence of atherosclerosis has been recognized for Ͼ500 years; as a pathological condition, it has been recognized for Ͼ150 years. Understanding of atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD) has evolved most dramatically over the past 25 years with the growth of the field of vascular biology. 1 Numerous studies have described this disease as a diffuse(More)
Selective transcription of human mitochondrial DNA requires a transcription factor (mtTF) in addition to an essentially nonselective RNA polymerase. Partially purified mtTF is able to sequester promoter-containing DNA in preinitiation complexes in the absence of mitochondrial RNA polymerase, suggesting a DNA-binding mechanism for factor activity. Functional(More)
Vertebrate cells contain a site-specific endoribonuclease (RNase MRP) that cleaves mitochondrial RNA transcribed from the origin of leading-strand mitochondrial DNA replication. This report presents the characterization of the human enzyme and its essential RNA component. Human RNase MRP is a ribonucleoprotein with a nucleus-encoded RNA of 265 nucleotides.(More)
OBJECTIVE Reactive oxygen species may act as proinflammatory mediators in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease. Flow loading increases antioxidative enzyme expression and limits reactive oxygen species production in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro, limits experimental AAA enlargement in rodent models, and is indirectly associated with reduced(More)
BACKGROUND Although beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) blockade therapy is beneficial in the treatment of heart failure, little is known regarding the transcriptional mechanisms underlying this salutary action. METHODS AND RESULTS In the present study, we screened mice overexpressing Gsalpha, beta1AR, beta2AR, or protein kinase A to test if a common genomic(More)
BACKGROUND biomechanical forces generated by blood flow within the cardiovascular system have been proposed as important modulators of regional endothelial phenotype and function. This process is thought to involve the regulation of vascular gene expression by physiological fluid mechanical stimuli such as fluid shear stresses. METHODS AND RESULTS We(More)
Identification of signaling pathways that maintain and promote adult pancreatic islet functions will accelerate our understanding of organogenesis and improve strategies for treating diseases like diabetes mellitus. Previous work has implicated transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling as an important regulator of pancreatic islet development,(More)
Genetic differences in endothelial biology could underlie development of phenotypic heterogeneity among persons afflicted with vascular diseases. We obtained blood outgrowth endothelial cells from 20 subjects with sickle cell anemia (age, 4-19 years) shown to be either at-risk (n=11) or not-at-risk (n=9) for ischemic stroke because of, respectively, having(More)