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The MAD-related (MADR) family includes the sma-2, These proteins are highly Division of Gastroenterology conserved across species, but have no known structural The Hospital for Sick Children motifs and bear no resemblance to components of other Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8 signaling pathways. All members of the family share Canada certain structural domains(More)
TGFbeta signaling is initiated when the type I receptor phosphorylates the MAD-related protein, Smad2, on C-terminal serine residues. This leads to Smad2 association with Smad4, translocation to the nucleus, and regulation of transcriptional responses. Here we demonstrate that Smad7 is an inhibitor of TGFbeta signaling. Smad7 prevents TGFbeta-dependent(More)
Selective transcription of human mitochondrial DNA requires a transcription factor (mtTF) in addition to an essentially nonselective RNA polymerase. Partially purified mtTF is able to sequester promoter-containing DNA in preinitiation complexes in the absence of mitochondrial RNA polymerase, suggesting a DNA-binding mechanism for factor activity. Functional(More)
BACKGROUND Although beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) blockade therapy is beneficial in the treatment of heart failure, little is known regarding the transcriptional mechanisms underlying this salutary action. METHODS AND RESULTS In the present study, we screened mice overexpressing Gsalpha, beta1AR, beta2AR, or protein kinase A to test if a common genomic(More)
OBJECTIVE Reactive oxygen species may act as proinflammatory mediators in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease. Flow loading increases antioxidative enzyme expression and limits reactive oxygen species production in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro, limits experimental AAA enlargement in rodent models, and is indirectly associated with reduced(More)
Sera from patients with autoimmune diseases often contain antibodies that bind ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). Sera from 30 such patients were found to immunoprecipitate ribonuclease P (RNase P), an RNP enzyme required to process the 5' termini of transfer RNA transcripts in nuclei and mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. All 30 sera also immunoprecipitated the(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) is a pleiotropic cytokine/growth factor that is thought to play a critical role in the modulation of inflammatory events. We demonstrate that exogenous TGF-beta(1) can inhibit the expression of the proinflammatory adhesion molecule, E-selectin, in vascular endothelium exposed to inflammatory stimuli both in vitro and(More)
Genetic differences in endothelial biology could underlie development of phenotypic heterogeneity among persons afflicted with vascular diseases. We obtained blood outgrowth endothelial cells from 20 subjects with sickle cell anemia (age, 4-19 years) shown to be either at-risk (n=11) or not-at-risk (n=9) for ischemic stroke because of, respectively, having(More)
Identification of signaling pathways that maintain and promote adult pancreatic islet functions will accelerate our understanding of organogenesis and improve strategies for treating diseases like diabetes mellitus. Previous work has implicated transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling as an important regulator of pancreatic islet development,(More)
Egr-1 is an immediate early gene that couples short-term changes in the extracellular milieu to long-term changes in gene expression. Under in vitro conditions, the Egr-1 gene is expressed in many cell types and is induced by a wide variety of extracellular signals. The mechanisms by which the Egr-1 gene is regulated in vivo remain poorly understood. In(More)