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The MAD-related (MADR) family includes the sma-2, These proteins are highly Division of Gastroenterology conserved across species, but have no known structural The Hospital for Sick Children motifs and bear no resemblance to components of other Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8 signaling pathways. All members of the family share Canada certain structural domains(More)
TGFbeta signaling is initiated when the type I receptor phosphorylates the MAD-related protein, Smad2, on C-terminal serine residues. This leads to Smad2 association with Smad4, translocation to the nucleus, and regulation of transcriptional responses. Here we demonstrate that Smad7 is an inhibitor of TGFbeta signaling. Smad7 prevents TGFbeta-dependent(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been identified in vulnerable areas of atherosclerotic plaques and may contribute to plaque instability through extracellular matrix degradation. Human metalloelastase (MMP-12) is a macrophage-specific MMP with broad substrate specificity and is capable of degrading proteins found in the extracellular matrix of(More)
Vascular endothelium, the cellular monolayer lining the entire cardiovascular system, is exposed to a variety of biochemical and biomechanical stimuli. Fluid shear stresses generated by blood flow in the vasculature can profoundly influence the phenotype of the endothelium by regulating the activity of certain flow-sensitive proteins (for example, enzymes),(More)
Early atherosclerotic lesions develop in a topographical pattern that strongly suggests involvement of hemodynamic forces in their pathogenesis. We hypothesized that certain endothelial genes, which exhibit differential responsiveness to distinct fluid mechanical stimuli, may participate in the atherogenic process by modulating, on a local level within the(More)
Phenotypic modulation of endothelium to a dysfunctional state contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The localization of atherosclerotic lesions to arterial geometries associated with disturbed flow patterns suggests an important role for local hemodynamic forces in atherogenesis. There is increasing evidence(More)
Vascular endothelium is an important transducer and integrator of both humoral and biomechanical stimuli within the cardiovascular system. Utilizing a differential display approach, we have identified two genes, Smad6 and Smad7, encoding members of the MAD-related family of molecules, selectively induced in cultured human vascular endothelial cells by(More)
Therapy for ischemic heart disease has been directed traditionally at limiting cell necrosis. We determined by genome profiling whether ischemic myocardium can trigger a genetic program promoting cardiac cell survival, which would be a novel and potentially equally important mechanism of salvage. Although cardiac genomics is usually performed in rodents, we(More)
Smad proteins are essential components of the intracellular signaling pathways utilized by members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of growth factors. Certain Smad proteins (e.g. Smad1, -2, and -3) can act as regulated transcriptional activators, a process that involves phosphorylation of these proteins by activated TGF-beta(More)
We have previously utilized a combination of high throughput sequencing and genome-wide microarray profiling analyses to identify novel cell-surface proteins expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. One gene identified by this approach encodes a type I transmembrane receptor that shares sequence homology with the intracellular domain of members(More)