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The MAD-related (MADR) family includes the sma-2, These proteins are highly Division of Gastroenterology conserved across species, but have no known structural The Hospital for Sick Children motifs and bear no resemblance to components of other Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8 signaling pathways. All members of the family share Canada certain structural domains(More)
TGFbeta signaling is initiated when the type I receptor phosphorylates the MAD-related protein, Smad2, on C-terminal serine residues. This leads to Smad2 association with Smad4, translocation to the nucleus, and regulation of transcriptional responses. Here we demonstrate that Smad7 is an inhibitor of TGFbeta signaling. Smad7 prevents TGFbeta-dependent(More)
Therapy for ischemic heart disease has been directed traditionally at limiting cell necrosis. We determined by genome profiling whether ischemic myocardium can trigger a genetic program promoting cardiac cell survival, which would be a novel and potentially equally important mechanism of salvage. Although cardiac genomics is usually performed in rodents, we(More)
Vascular endothelium, the cellular monolayer lining the entire cardiovascular system, is exposed to a variety of biochemical and biomechanical stimuli. Fluid shear stresses generated by blood flow in the vasculature can profoundly influence the phenotype of the endothelium by regulating the activity of certain flow-sensitive proteins (for example, enzymes),(More)
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of growth factors and cytokines has been implicated in a variety of physiological and developmental processes within the cardiovascular system. Smad proteins are a recently described family of intracellular signaling proteins that transduce signals in response to TGF-beta superfamily ligands. We(More)
Early atherosclerotic lesions develop in a topographical pattern that strongly suggests involvement of hemodynamic forces in their pathogenesis. We hypothesized that certain endothelial genes, which exhibit differential responsiveness to distinct fluid mechanical stimuli, may participate in the atherogenic process by modulating, on a local level within the(More)
Selective transcription of human mitochondrial DNA requires a transcription factor (mtTF) in addition to an essentially nonselective RNA polymerase. Partially purified mtTF is able to sequester promoter-containing DNA in preinitiation complexes in the absence of mitochondrial RNA polymerase, suggesting a DNA-binding mechanism for factor activity. Functional(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been identified in vulnerable areas of atherosclerotic plaques and may contribute to plaque instability through extracellular matrix degradation. Human metalloelastase (MMP-12) is a macrophage-specific MMP with broad substrate specificity and is capable of degrading proteins found in the extracellular matrix of(More)
Phenotypic modulation of endothelium to a dysfunctional state contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The localization of atherosclerotic lesions to arterial geometries associated with disturbed flow patterns suggests an important role for local hemodynamic forces in atherogenesis. There is increasing evidence(More)
We have previously utilized a combination of high throughput sequencing and genome-wide microarray profiling analyses to identify novel cell-surface proteins expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. One gene identified by this approach encodes a type I transmembrane receptor that shares sequence homology with the intracellular domain of members(More)