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BACKGROUND Interest in the health effects of particulate matter (PM) has focused on identifying sources of PM, including biomass burning, power plants, and gasoline and diesel emissions that may be associated with adverse health risks. Few epidemiologic studies, however, have included source-apportionment estimates in their examinations of PM health(More)
BACKGROUND An emerging body of evidence suggests that ambient levels of air pollution during pregnancy are associated with fetal growth. OBJECTIVES We examined relationships between birth weight and temporal variation in ambient levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), ozone, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM₁₀), ≤(More)
BACKGROUND Two distinctly different types of measurement error are Berkson and classical. Impacts of measurement error in epidemiologic studies of ambient air pollution are expected to depend on error type. We characterize measurement error due to instrument imprecision and spatial variability as multiplicative (i.e. additive on the log scale) and model it(More)
BACKGROUND In time-series studies of the health effects of urban air pollutants, decisions must be made about how to characterize pollutant levels within the airshed. METHODS Emergency department visits for pediatric asthma exacerbations were collected from Atlanta hospitals. Concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide,(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that increased ambient air pollution concentrations are associated with health effects, although relatively few studies have specifically examined infants. OBJECTIVE We examined associations of daily ambient air pollution concentrations with central apnea (prolonged pauses in breathing) and bradycardia (low heart rate) events(More)
New abstractions are simplifying the programming of large clusters, but diagnosis nontheless gets more and more challenging as cluster sizes grow: Debugging information increases <i>linearly</i> with cluster size, and the count of intercomponent relationships grows <i>quadratically</i>. Worse, the new abstractions which simplified programming can also(More)
In recent years, geostatistical modeling has been used to inform air pollution health studies. In this study, distributions of daily ambient concentrations were modeled over space and time for 12 air pollutants. Simulated pollutant fields were produced for a 6-year time period over the 20-county metropolitan Atlanta area using the Stanford Geostatistical(More)
BACKGROUND Previous epidemiologic studies suggest associations between preterm birth and ambient air pollution. OBJECTIVE We investigated associations between 11 ambient air pollutants, estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulations with measurements from stationary monitors, and risk of preterm birth (< 37 weeks of(More)
BACKGROUND Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Determining which sources of PM2.5 are most toxic can help guide targeted reduction of PM2.5. However, conducting multicity epidemiologic studies of sources is difficult because source-specific PM2.5 is not(More)
BACKGROUND Characterizing multipollutant health effects is challenging. We use classification and regression trees to identify multipollutant joint effects associated with pediatric asthma exacerbations and compare these results with those from a multipollutant regression model with continuous joint effects. METHODS We investigate the joint effects of(More)