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Obesity is an epidemic in Western society, and causes rapidly accelerating rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), functions as a 'fuel gauge' to monitor cellular energy status. We investigated the potential role of AMPK in the hypothalamus in the(More)
Glucose homeostasis depends on insulin responsiveness in target tissues, most importantly, muscle and liver. The critical initial steps in insulin action include phosphorylation of scaffolding proteins and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. These early events lead to activation of the serine-threonine protein kinase Akt, also known as protein(More)
Replicative cell division is an energetically demanding process that can be executed only if cells have sufficient metabolic resources to support a doubling of cell mass. Here we show that proliferating mammalian cells have a cell-cycle checkpoint that responds to glucose availability. The glucose-dependent checkpoint occurs at the G(1)/S boundary and is(More)
Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a peptide secreted postprandially from the L-cells of the gut that has a weak affinity for both the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) and the glucagon receptor (GCGR). Peripheral administration of OXM in humans and rodents causes weight loss reducing food intake and increasing energy expenditure. It has been suggested that OXM(More)
Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical adaptation to chronic energy deprivation, yet the signaling mechanisms responsible for this response are poorly understood. To examine the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an evolutionarily conserved fuel sensor, in mitochondrial biogenesis we studied transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative mutant of(More)
An acute bout of exercise increases muscle GLUT4 mRNA in mice, and denervation decreases GLUT4 mRNA. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in skeletal muscle is also increased by exercise, and GLUT4 mRNA is increased in mouse skeletal muscle after treatment with AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside(AICAR). These(More)
Despite evidence that protein kinases are regulators of apoptosis, a specific role for phosphatases in regulating cell survival has not been established. Here we show that alpha4, a noncatalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is required to repress apoptosis in murine cells. alpha4 is a nonredundant regulator of the dephosphorylation of the(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) mitigates many of the pathogenic features of type 2 diabetes, despite a short circulating half-life. PEGylation is a proven approach to prolonging the duration of action while enhancing biophysical solubility and stability. However, in the absence of a specific protein PEGylation site, chemical conjugation is inherently(More)
OBJECTIVE—Islet transplantations have been performed clinically , but their practical applications are limited. An extensive effort has been made toward the identification of pancreatic ␤-cell stem cells that has yielded many insights to date, yet targeted reconstitution of ␤-cell mass remains elusive. Here, we present a mouse model for inducible and(More)
FGF21 is a novel secreted protein with robust anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, and anti-atherogenic activities in preclinical species. In the current study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways downstream of FGF21 following acute administration of the growth factor to mice. Focusing on adipose tissues, we identified FGF21-mediated downstream(More)