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Obesity is an epidemic in Western society, and causes rapidly accelerating rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), functions as a 'fuel gauge' to monitor cellular energy status. We investigated the potential role of AMPK in the hypothalamus in the(More)
Replicative cell division is an energetically demanding process that can be executed only if cells have sufficient metabolic resources to support a doubling of cell mass. Here we show that proliferating mammalian cells have a cell-cycle checkpoint that responds to glucose availability. The glucose-dependent checkpoint occurs at the G(1)/S boundary and is(More)
Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical adaptation to chronic energy deprivation, yet the signaling mechanisms responsible for this response are poorly understood. To examine the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an evolutionarily conserved fuel sensor, in mitochondrial biogenesis we studied transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative mutant of(More)
Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), a key regulator of the actions of incretin hormones, exert antihyperglycemic effects in type 2 diabetic patients. A major unanswered question concerns the potential ability of DPP-4 inhibition to have beneficial disease-modifying effects, specifically to attenuate loss of pancreatic beta-cell mass and function.(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a phylogenetically conserved intracellular energy sensor that has been implicated as a major regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism in mammals. However, its possible role in mediating or influencing the adrenergic control of lipolysis in adipocytes remains uncertain. In this study, we utilized the murine cultured(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is viewed as a fuel sensor for glucose and lipid metabolism. To better understand the physiological role of AMPK, we generated a knockout mouse model in which the AMPKalpha2 catalytic subunit gene was inactivated. AMPKalpha2(-/-) mice presented high glucose levels in the fed period and during an oral glucose challenge(More)
Recent data have implicated the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) in a diverse array of physiological pathways, raising the question of how biological specificity is maintained. Partial clarification derived from the observation that mice deficient in either of the two isoforms, Akt1/PKBalpha or Akt2/PKBbeta, demonstrate distinct(More)
Adipose tissue is a metabolically responsive endocrine organ that secretes a myriad of adipokines. Antidiabetic drugs such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonists target adipose tissue gene expression and correct hyperglycemia via whole-body insulin sensitization. The mechanism by which altered gene expression in adipose tissue(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator of diverse cellular pathways in the setting of energetic stress. Whether AMPK plays a critical role in the metabolic and functional responses to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion remains uncertain. We examined the cardiac consequences of long-term inhibition of AMPK activity in transgenic mice(More)
Despite evidence that protein kinases are regulators of apoptosis, a specific role for phosphatases in regulating cell survival has not been established. Here we show that alpha4, a noncatalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is required to repress apoptosis in murine cells. alpha4 is a nonredundant regulator of the dephosphorylation of the(More)