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Empirical research on the determinants of economic growth has typically neglected the influence of religion. To fill this gap, we use international survey data on religiosity for a broad panel of countries to investigate the effects of church attendance and religious beliefs on economic growth. To isolate the direction of causation from religiosity to(More)
BACKGROUND Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit sentence comprehension difficulties. In some instances, these difficulties appear to be related to poor linguistic knowledge and, in other instances, to inferior general processing abilities. Two processing deficiencies evidenced by these children include reduced linguistic processing(More)
ost treatments of the relation between culture and social structure—going all the way back to the classic statements by Marx and Engels (1939) and Durkheim ([1933] 1997:215, 276)—aim at explaining the connection between these two domains by highlighting the ways in which patterns of social relations affect the composition and structure of cultural systems(More)
A community's culture is defined by the preferences and equilibrium behaviors of its members. Contacts among communities alter individual cultures through two mechanisms: behavioral adaptations driven by payoffs to coordination and preference changes shaped by socialization and self-persuasion. This paper explores the workings of these mechanisms through a(More)
—A key parameter affecting the operation of differential evolution (DE) is the crossover rate Cr ∈ [0, 1]. While very low values are recommended for and used with separable problems, on non-separable problems, which include most real-world problems, Cr = 0.9 has become the de facto standard, working well across a large range of problem domains. Recent work(More)
Many animals use chemical substances known as pheromones to induce behavioural changes in other members of the same species. The use of pheromones by ants in particular has lead to the development of a number of computational analogues of ant colony behaviour including Ant Colony Optimisation. Although many animals use a range of pheromones in their(More)
Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) is a constructive meta-heuristic that uses an analogue of ant trail pheromones to learn about good features of solutions. ACO implementations are typically tailored in an ad hoc manner to suit particular problems. Critically, the phero-mone representation for a particular problem is usually chosen intuitively rather than by(More)
—In the commonly used DE/rand/1 variant of differential evolution the primary mechanism of generating new solutions is the perturbation of a randomly selected point by a difference vector. The newly selected point may, if good enough, then replace a solution from the current generation. As the magnitude of difference vectors diminishes as the population(More)