The Endurance of National Constitutions makes an invaluable contribution to the comparative study of constitutions. The book is the first to leverage data from the Comparative Constitutions Project (CCP), a joint venture by Zachary Elkins and Tom Ginsburg which begun in 2005 after they 'found' each other as newly-hired faculty at the University of Illinois… (More)
A BS T R AC T Economists have documented pervasive correlations between legal origins, modern regulation, and economic outcomes around the world. Where legal origin is exogenous, however, it is almost perfectly correlated with another set of potentially relevant background variables: the colonial policies of the European powers that spread the " origin "… (More)
Sequencing mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes has become an integral part in understanding the genomic machinery and the phylogenetic histories of green algae. Previously, only three chloroplast genomes (Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, Pseudendoclonium akinetum, and Bryopsis hypnoides) and two mitochondrial genomes (O. viridis and P. akinetum) from the class… (More)
How long do constitutional systems persist and what explains their demise? This paper introduces a new set of data on the chronology and content of constitutions that facilitates a test of expectations about constitutional mortality and its associated risk factors. We develop a theory of constitutional longevity, in which executive ambition poses a… (More)
University College London for helpful suggestions on previous versions of this manuscript.
Executive term limits are precommitments through which the polity restricts its ability to retain a popular executive down the road. But in recent years, many presidents around the world have chosen to remain in office even after their initial maximum term in office has expired. They have largely done so by amending the constitution, sometimes by replacing… (More)
Disclaimer: This is a working paper, and hence it represents research in progress. This paper represents the opinions of the authors, and is the product of professional research. It is not meant to represent the position or opinions of the WTO or its Members, nor the official position of any staff members. Any errors are the fault of the authors. Copies of… (More)
It is often asserted that the United States' Constitution is the world's most difficult to amend. 2 Depending on one's normative perspective, this fact is either seen as a reflection of the Constitution's genius and a key to its endurance, or as a barrier to modernization. 3 But virtually all observers agree on the basic fact of difficulty. The question is:… (More)