James McQuillan

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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (INDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) each catalyze the first step in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. We describe the discovery of another enzyme with this activity, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-like protein (INDOL1), which is closely related to INDO and is expressed in mice and humans. The corresponding(More)
Cerebral malaria (CM) can be a fatal manifestation of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Using murine models of malaria, we found much greater up-regulation of a number of chemokine mRNAs, including those for CXCR3 and its ligands, in the brain during fatal murine CM (FMCM) than in a model of non-CM. Expression of CXCL9 and CXCL10 RNA was localized(More)
The role of glutamine and alanine transport in the recycling of neurotransmitter glutamate was investigated in Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slices and prisms, and in cultured neuroblastoma and astrocyte cell lines. The ability of exogenous (2 mm) glutamine to displace 13C label supplied as [3-13C]pyruvate, [2-13C]acetate, l-[3-13C]lactate, or(More)
Malaria infection can cause cerebral symptoms without parasite invasion of brain tissue. We examined the relationships between brain biochemistry, bioenergetics, and gene expression in murine models of cerebral (Plasmodium berghei ANKA) and noncerebral (P. berghei K173) malaria using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, neuropharmacological approaches, and(More)
Understanding biochemical mechanisms and changes associated with disease conditions and, therefore, development of improved clinical treatments, is relying increasingly on various biochemical mapping and imaging techniques on tissue sections. However, it is essential to be able to ascertain whether the sampling used provides the full biochemical information(More)
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a fatal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Using a well defined murine model, we observed the effect on disease outcome of temporarily reducing parasite burden by anti-malarial drug treatment. The anti-malarial treatment regime chosen decreased parasitaemia but did not cure the mice, allowing recrudescence of(More)
Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) drives antiparasite responses and immunopathology during infection with Plasmodium species. Immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) are a class of IFN-γ-dependent proteins that are essential for cell autonomous immunity to numerous intracellular pathogens. However, it is currently unknown whether IRGs modulate responses during malaria. We(More)
Malaria continues to cause millions of deaths annually. No specific effective treatment has yet been found for cerebral malaria, one of the most severe complications of the disease. The pathology of cerebral malaria is considered to be primarily immunological. We examined a number of compounds with known effects on the immune system, in a murine model of(More)
Phosphocreatine is a major cellular source of high energy phosphates, which is crucial to maintain cell viability under conditions of impaired metabolic states, such as decreased oxygen and energy availability (i.e., ischemia). Many methods exist for the bulk analysis of phosphocreatine and its dephosphorylated product creatine; however, no method exists to(More)
Lack of expression of a single gene, dystrophin, causes the severe, progressive muscle wasting and mental deficits characteristic of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In this work, we investigated the impact of dystrophin deletion on expression of other genes in the brain cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum using the murine homologue, the mdx mouse, and RT-PCR.(More)