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The vertebrate body plan has conserved handed left-right (LR) asymmetry that is manifested in the heart, lungs, and gut. Leftward flow of extracellular fluid at the node (nodal flow) is critical for normal LR axis determination in the mouse. Nodal flow is generated by motile node cell monocilia and requires the axonemal dynein, left-right dynein (lrd). In(More)
Handed asymmetry of the shape and position of the internal organs is found in all vertebrates, and is essential for normal cardiac development. Recent genetic and embryological experiments in mouse embryos have demonstrated that left-right asymmetry is established by directional flow of extraembryonic fluid surrounding the node, which is driven by motile(More)
Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4; ABCC4) is a member of the MRP/ATP-binding cassette family serving as a transmembrane transporter involved in energy-dependent efflux of anticancer/antiviral nucleotide agents and of physiological substrates, including cyclic nucleotides and prostaglandins (PGs). Phenotypic consequences of mrp4 deficiency were(More)
Vertebrates develop distinct asymmetries along the left-right axis, which are consistently aligned with the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. The mechanisms that direct this handed development of left-right asymmetries have been elusive, but recent studies of mutations that affect left-right development have shed light on the molecules involved. One(More)
The hedgehog (Hh) pathway is conserved from Drosophila to humans and plays a key role in embryonic development. In addition, activation of the pathway in somatic cells contributes to cancer development in several tissues. Suppressor of fused is a negative regulator of Hh signaling. Targeted disruption of the murine suppressor of fused gene (Sufu) led to a(More)
In nonneuronopathic type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1), mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA1) gene result in glucocerebrosidase deficiency and the accumulation of its substrate, glucocerebroside (GL-1), in the lysosomes of mononuclear phagocytes. This prevailing macrophage-centric view, however, does not explain emerging aspects of the disease,(More)
Intestinal crypt stem cells establish clonal descendants. To determine whether the pancreas is patterned by a similar process, we used embryonic stem (ES) cell chimeric mice, in which male ES cells were injected into female blastocysts. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the Y chromosome (Y-FISH) revealed clonal patterning of ES-derived cells in the(More)
The homeobox gene Hhex has recently been shown to be essential for normal liver, thyroid and forebrain development. Hhex(-/-) mice die by mid-gestation (E14.5) and the cause of their early demise remains unclear. Because Hhex is expressed in the developing blood islands at E7.0 in the endothelium of the developing vasculature and heart at E9.0-9.5, and in(More)
Genomic disorders contribute significantly to genetic disease and, as detection methods improve, greater numbers are being defined. Paralogous low copy repeats (LCRs) mediate many of the chromosomal rearrangements that underlie these disorders, predisposing chromosomes to recombination errors. Deletions of proximal 22q11.2 comprise the most frequently(More)
OFD1, now recognized as a ciliopathy, is characterized by malformations of the face, oral cavity and digits, and is transmitted as an X-linked condition with lethality in males. Mutations in OFD1 also cause X-linked Joubert syndrome (JBTS10) and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 (SGBS2). We have studied 55 sporadic and six familial cases of suspected(More)