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The vertebrate body plan has conserved handed left-right (LR) asymmetry that is manifested in the heart, lungs, and gut. Leftward flow of extracellular fluid at the node (nodal flow) is critical for normal LR axis determination in the mouse. Nodal flow is generated by motile node cell monocilia and requires the axonemal dynein, left-right dynein (lrd). In(More)
Transplantation of pronuclei between one-cell-stage embryos was used to construct diploid mouse embryos with two female pronuclei ( biparental gynogenones ) or two male pronuclei ( biparental androgenones ). The ability of these embryos to develop to term was compared with control nuclear-transplant embryos in which the male or the female pronucleus was(More)
Handed asymmetry of the shape and position of the internal organs is found in all vertebrates, and is essential for normal cardiac development. Recent genetic and embryological experiments in mouse embryos have demonstrated that left-right asymmetry is established by directional flow of extraembryonic fluid surrounding the node, which is driven by motile(More)
Nuclear transplantation in the mouse embryo was achieved by using a method that combines microsurgical removal of the zygote pronuclei with the introduction of a donor nucleus by a virus-mediated cell fusion technique. Survival of embryos was greater than 90 per cent in tests of this procedure. The embryos developed to term at a frequency not significantly(More)
More than 90 percent of enucleated one-cell mouse embryos receiving pronuclei from other one-cell embryos successfully develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro. In this investigation, nuclei from successive preimplantation cleavage stages were introduced into enucleated one-cell embryos and the embryos were tested for development in vitro. Although two-cell(More)
Progress in the emerging areas of science and technology, such as bio- and nano-technologies, depends on development of corresponding techniques for imaging and probing the structures with high resolution. Recently, the far field diffraction resolution limit in the optical range has been circumvented and different methods of super-resolution optical(More)
Integrated permeate channel (IPC) flat sheet membranes were examined for use as a reverse membrane bioreactor (rMBR) for lignocellulosic ethanol production. The fermenting organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T0936), a genetically-modified strain with the ability to ferment xylose, was used inside the rMBR. The rMBR was evaluated for simultaneous glucose and(More)
The fidelity of chromosomal segregation during cell division is important to maintain chromosomal stability in order to prevent cancer and birth defects. Although several spindle-associated molecular motors have been shown to be essential for cell division, only a few chromosome arm-associated motors have been described. Here, we investigated the role of(More)