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The vertebrate body plan has conserved handed left-right (LR) asymmetry that is manifested in the heart, lungs, and gut. Leftward flow of extracellular fluid at the node (nodal flow) is critical for normal LR axis determination in the mouse. Nodal flow is generated by motile node cell monocilia and requires the axonemal dynein, left-right dynein (lrd). In(More)
Handed asymmetry of the shape and position of the internal organs is found in all vertebrates, and is essential for normal cardiac development. Recent genetic and embryological experiments in mouse embryos have demonstrated that left-right asymmetry is established by directional flow of extraembryonic fluid surrounding the node, which is driven by motile(More)
In nonneuronopathic type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1), mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA1) gene result in glucocerebrosidase deficiency and the accumulation of its substrate, glucocerebroside (GL-1), in the lysosomes of mononuclear phagocytes. This prevailing macrophage-centric view, however, does not explain emerging aspects of the disease,(More)
Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4; ABCC4) is a member of the MRP/ATP-binding cassette family serving as a transmembrane transporter involved in energy-dependent efflux of anticancer/antiviral nucleotide agents and of physiological substrates, including cyclic nucleotides and prostaglandins (PGs). Phenotypic consequences of mrp4 deficiency were(More)
The hedgehog (Hh) pathway is conserved from Drosophila to humans and plays a key role in embryonic development. In addition, activation of the pathway in somatic cells contributes to cancer development in several tissues. Suppressor of fused is a negative regulator of Hh signaling. Targeted disruption of the murine suppressor of fused gene (Sufu) led to a(More)
Intestinal crypt stem cells establish clonal descendants. To determine whether the pancreas is patterned by a similar process, we used embryonic stem (ES) cell chimeric mice, in which male ES cells were injected into female blastocysts. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the Y chromosome (Y-FISH) revealed clonal patterning of ES-derived cells in the(More)
Genomic disorders contribute significantly to genetic disease and, as detection methods improve, greater numbers are being defined. Paralogous low copy repeats (LCRs) mediate many of the chromosomal rearrangements that underlie these disorders, predisposing chromosomes to recombination errors. Deletions of proximal 22q11.2 comprise the most frequently(More)
The homeobox gene Hhex has recently been shown to be essential for normal liver, thyroid and forebrain development. Hhex(-/-) mice die by mid-gestation (E14.5) and the cause of their early demise remains unclear. Because Hhex is expressed in the developing blood islands at E7.0 in the endothelium of the developing vasculature and heart at E9.0-9.5, and in(More)
The specificity with which CD4+ T cells recognize self peptides in vivo was examined in transgenic mice that express an influenza virus PR8 hemagglutinin (HA) polypeptide in many tissues, including the thymus (HA Tg mice). HA Tg and non-Tg mice were analyzed for their T cell responses to the major PR8 HA I-E(d)-restricted CD4+ T cell determinant S1.(More)
We report 26 individuals from ten unrelated families who exhibit variable expression and/or incomplete penetrance of epilepsy, learning difficulties, intellectual disabilities, and/or neurobehavioral abnormalities as a result of a heterozygous microdeletion distally adjacent to the Williams-Beuren syndrome region on chromosome 7q11.23. In six families with(More)