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Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms are often used to sample combinatorial structures such as matchings and independent sets in graphs. A Markov chain is defined whose state space includes the desired sample space, and which has an appropriate stationary distribution. By simulating the chain for a sufficiently large number of steps, we can sample from a(More)
A concept of generalized arousal of the CNS is presented and given an operational definition that leads to quantitative physical measures. Because this primitive arousal function underlies all motivated behavioral responses, cognitive functions, and emotional expression, disorders of generalized arousal can be associated with a large number of problems in(More)
The recent development of powerful, inexpensive hardware and software support has made digital video editing possible on personal computers and workstations. To date the video editing application category has been dominated by visual, easy-to-use, direct manipulation interfaces. These systems bring high-bandwidth human-computer interaction to a task(More)
" Fun is the original educational technology. " – Chris Crawford Games are among the oldest forms of experiential learning. Game-based learning scenarios are a staple in the military; games have been used to represent, communicate and explore the dynamics of complex situations with multiple interacting variables. Today's videogames allow new kinds of(More)
Land Mobile Radio (LMR) networks have been traditionally used for transmitting voice signals. Systems like Facsimile, Radio Teletype and Distributed Digital Radios (DDR) use a conventional analog FM radio to transmit data [1], [2]. Digital Radios like Packet Radio and P-25, use complex modulation schemes like Continuous Frequency Shift keying (CFSK),(More)
Academic conferences are a long-standing and effective form of multimedia communication. Conference participants can transmit and receive information through sight and sound, that is, by viewing individuals, text, and graphics, and by hearing the spoken word. This same-time, same-place communication is sufficiently valuable to justify large investments in(More)
For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers - people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance.(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of low back pain suggest the inclusion of a biopsychosocial approach in which patient self-management is prioritized. While many physiotherapists recognise the importance of evidence-based practice, there is an evidence practice gap that may in part be due to the fact that promoting self-management(More)
Multimedia systems integrate text, audio, video, graphics, and other media and allow them to be utilized in a combined and interactive manner. Using this exciting and rapidly developing technology, multimedia applications can provide extensive benefits in a variety of arenas, including research, education, medicine, and commerce. While there are many(More)
BACKGROUND The Medical Research Council framework provides a useful general approach to designing and evaluating complex interventions, but does not provide detailed guidance on how to do this and there is little evidence of how this framework is applied in practice. This study describes the use of intervention mapping (IM) in the design of a theory-driven,(More)