James Martin Baden

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The MAC of halothane, isoflurane, and enflurane was determined using the tail-clamp technique in pregnant female, nonpregnant female, and male Swiss Webster mice (n = 216) and Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 112). Mean MAC values (+/-SD) for halothane, isoflurane, and enflurane in mice were 0.95 +/- 0.07%, 1.34 +/- 0.10%, and 1.95 +/- 0.16%, respectively; values(More)
In mouse and rat embryos, the embryonic disc develops within a cup-shaped "egg cylinder" and consists of an inner layer of ectoderm and an outer layer of endoderm. Because of this configuration, the embryo first develops in a dorsally flexed position and then undergoes "axial rotation" to a ventrally flexed position. In the present study, we first analyzed(More)
Reproductive studies were performed in Swiss/ICR mice chronically exposed to subanesthetic and anesthetic concentrations of halothane. Male and female mice were treated five or seven days a week for nine weeks prior to mating; exposure of females was continued daily throughout pregnancy. Halothane exposures were 0.025, 0.1, 0.4, 1.2, and 4.0 MAC hours per(More)
We recently reported that rat embryos cultured from the presomite stage in a medium containing the alpha-1 adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine, have a high incidence of situs inversus. In the present study, we have determined more precisely the critical period of development when situs inversus is induced. Rat embryos were harvested at 8 AM on Day 9 of(More)
The toxic and teratogenic effects of inhaled anesthetics were assessed in an in vivo assay using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Eggs were exposed during development (metamorphosis) to enflurane, isoflurane or halothane at a vapor concentration of 0.1 or 0.2% (v/v), to fluroxene at 0.025 or 0.05% (v/v), or to nitrous oxide at 20 or 40% (v/v). Flies(More)
A total of 305 timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 6 h a day on each of three consecutive days in one of three periods, i.e., pregnancy days 14-16, 11-13, or 8-10, either to 0.55 times the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of nitrous oxide (75%) or to 0.75 MAC of halothane (0.8%), isoflurane (1.05%) or enflurane (1.65%); an additional 232(More)
The developmental toxicity of trace (0.006%), subanesthetic (0.06%), and light anesthetic (0.6%) exposure to isoflurane was examined in Swiss/Webster mice. No adverse effects were demonstrated following exposure of dams to 0.006% (n = 26) and 0.06% (n = 27) isoflurane for 4 hr daily on days 6-15 of pregnancy. Exposure to 0.6% isoflurane (n = 23) for the(More)
Rat embryos were explanted either on day 8, 3 PM (primitive streak stage) or on day 9, 8 AM (presomite stage) and divided randomly into two groups (plug day = day 0). In one group, Reichert's membrane was removed starting from the side opposite to the ectoplacental cone which was left intact (standard method). In the second group, Reichert's membrane was(More)
Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), the final enzyme in the pathway for epinephrine biosynthesis, serves as a marker for tissues and cells producing epinephrine. The present study examines the developmental expression of PNMT in the rat embryo. A transient burst in PNMT mRNA expression begins on embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5), peaks between E10.0 and(More)
The effect of phenylephrine, an alpha-1 adrenergic agonist, on development of body asymmetry was studied using a rat whole embryo culture system. Embryos were explanted at the presomite stage, cultured in 100% rat serum containing various concentrations of phenylephrine, and examined at the 20-25 somite stage for sidedness of asymmetric body structures,(More)