James M. Swanson

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OBJECTIVES To develop a categorical outcome measure related to clinical decisions and to perform secondary analyses to supplement the primary analyses of the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA). METHOD End-of-treatment status was summarized by averaging the parent and(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine any long-term effects, 6 and 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; N = 436); to test whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom trajectory(More)
Associations have been reported of the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the personality trait of novelty seeking. This polymorphism occurs in a 48-bp tandem repeat in the coding region of DRD4, with the most common allele containing four repeats (4R) and rarer(More)
The involvement of dopamine in drug reinforcement is well recognized but its role in drug addiction is much less clear. Imaging studies have shown that the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse in humans are contingent upon large and fast increases in dopamine that mimic but exceed in the intensity and duration those induced by dopamine cell firing to(More)
Dopamine is believed to play a major role in the manifestation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which affects 3-6% of school-age children and shows evidence of familiarity. The dopamine D4 receptor, which is preferentially distributed in cortical and limbic regions of the brain, is currently of major interest because of the high degree of(More)
OBJECTIVE This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study of 30 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that evaluated the time course effects of four doses of Adderall (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg), an inactive control (placebo), and a positive control (clinical dose of methylphenidate). METHOD For each treatment condition, a capsule(More)
Examined hypothesized gender and comorbidity differences in the observed classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The behavior of 403 boys and 99 girls with ADHD, ages 7-10, was compared (a) to observed, sex-specific classroom behavior norms, (b) by sex, and (c) by comorbid subgroups. Boys and girls with ADHD(More)
Multiple theories of Attention-Deficit/Hyper- activity Disorder (ADHD) have been proposed, but one that has stood the test of time is the dopamine deficit theory. We review the narrow literature from recent brain imaging and molecular genetic studies that has improved our understanding of the role of dopamine in manifestation of symptoms of ADHD,(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of several drug delivery patterns of methylphenidate and to determine whether acute tolerance develops to this widely used stimulant medication in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. METHODS Double-blind trials were conducted in a laboratory school setting in which multiple measures(More)
OBJECTIVES Previous research has been inconclusive whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), when comorbid with disruptive disorders (oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD]), with the internalizing disorders (anxiety and/or depression), or with both, should constitute separate clinical entities. Determination of the(More)