Learn More
Multiple theories of Attention-Deficit/Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD) have been proposed, but one that has stood the test of time is the dopamine deficit theory. We review the narrow literature from recent brain imaging and molecular genetic studies that has improved our understanding of the role of dopamine in manifestation of symptoms of ADHD, performance(More)
CONTEXT Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder of childhood. There is considerable evidence that brain dopamine is involved in ADHD, but it is unclear whether dopamine activity is enhanced or depressed. OBJECTIVE To test the hypotheses that striatal dopamine activity is depressed in ADHD and that this(More)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent psychiatric disorder in children, yet data are sparse on its pathophysiology. Particularly relevant are the dopamine transporters since these are the main targets of stimulant medications used for ADHD treatment. Though some imaging studies have shown increases in dopamine transporters in(More)
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically characterized as a disorder of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity but there is increasing evidence of deficits in motivation. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we showed decreased function in the brain dopamine reward pathway in adults with ADHD, which, we hypothesized, could(More)
BACKGROUND Current efforts to study the genetic underpinnings of higher brain functions have been lacking appropriate phenotypes to describe cognition. One of the problems is that many cognitive concepts for which there is a single word (e.g. attention) have been shown to be related to several anatomical networks. Recently, we have developed an Attention(More)
CONTEXT Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--characterized by symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity--is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorder that frequently persists into adulthood, and there is increasing evidence of reward-motivation deficits in this disorder. OBJECTIVE To evaluate biological bases that might(More)
Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain(More)
OBJECTIVE Methylphenidate is the most commonly prescribed drug for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet its therapeutic mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess if methylphenidate, by increasing dopamine (neurotransmitter involved in motivation) in brain, would enhance the saliency of an academic task,(More)
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is an effective drug in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the doses required therapeutically vary significantly between subjects and it is not understood what determines these differences. Since methylphenidate's therapeutic effects are in part due to increases in extracellular DA secondary to(More)
Differences in reaction time (RT) variability have been documented between children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most previous research has utilized estimates of normal distributions to examine variability. Using a nontraditional approach, the present study evaluated RT distributions on the Conners' Continuous(More)