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The cadherins mediate cell adhesion and play a fundamental role in normal development. They participate in the maintenance of proper cell-cell contacts: for example, reduced levels of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) correlate with increased invasiveness in many human tumour cell types. The cadherins typically consist of five tandemly repeated extracellular(More)
Progressive loss of T cell functionality is a hallmark of chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). We have identified a novel population of dysfunctional T cells marked by surface expression of the glycoprotein Tim-3. The frequency of this population was increased in HIV-1-infected individuals to a mean of 49.4 +/- SD 12.9% of CD8(+) T(More)
Activation and covalent attachment of complement component C3 to pathogens is the key step in complement-mediated host defense. Additionally, the antigen-bound C3d fragment interacts with complement receptor 2 (CR2; also known as CD21) on B cells and thereby contributes to the initiation of an acquired humoral response. The x-ray crystal structure of human(More)
The three-dimensional structure of a specific antibody (Fab 17/9) to a peptide immunogen from influenza virus hemagglutinin [HA1(75-110)] and two independent crystal complexes of this antibody with bound peptide (TyrP100-LeuP108) have been determined by x-ray crystallographic techniques at 2.0 A, 2.9 A, and 3.1 A resolution, respectively. The nonapeptide(More)
The positions of eight Se atoms in a selenomethionyl 35 kDa protein were determined at 2.0 and 2.5 A resolution using the direct-methods program SnB. Data at the selenium peak, edge and remote wavelengths were measured and processed independently. Anomalous difference E magnitudes at each wavelength were derived by two different procedures: renormalized(More)
N-glycosylation, a common cotranslational modification, is thought to be critical for plasma membrane expression of glycoproteins by enhancing protein folding, trafficking, and stability through targeting them to the ER folding cycles via lectin-like chaperones. In this study, we show that N-glycans, specifically core glycans, enhance the productive folding(More)
Most monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated from humans infected or vaccinated with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) influenza virus targeted the hemagglutinin (HA) stem. These anti-HA stem mAbs mostly used IGHV1-69 and bound readily to epitopes on the conventional seasonal influenza and pdmH1N1 vaccines. The anti-HA stem mAbs neutralized pdmH1N1, seasonal(More)
Galectins are defined by a conserved β-galactoside binding site that has been linked to many of their important functions in e.g. cell adhesion, signaling, and intracellular trafficking. Weak adjacent sites may enhance or decrease affinity for natural β-galactoside-containing glycoconjugates, but little is known about the biological role of this modulation(More)
The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) was recently observed to co-purify with members of the LIV-1 subfamily of ZIP zinc transporters (LZTs), precipitating the surprising discovery that the prion gene family descended from an ancestral LZT gene. Here, we compared the subcellular distribution and biophysical characteristics of LZTs and their PrP-like(More)
The ability of PrP Sc to convert PrP C into protease-resistance isoforms has been exploited using a variety of techniques such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), quaking induced conversion (QuIC) and most recently, real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC). 1 These cell-free assays have enabled a better understanding of prion diseases(More)