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The cadherins mediate cell adhesion and play a fundamental role in normal development. They participate in the maintenance of proper cell-cell contacts: for example, reduced levels of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) correlate with increased invasiveness in many human tumour cell types. The cadherins typically consist of five tandemly repeated extracellular(More)
Progressive loss of T cell functionality is a hallmark of chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). We have identified a novel population of dysfunctional T cells marked by surface expression of the glycoprotein Tim-3. The frequency of this population was increased in HIV-1-infected individuals to a mean of 49.4 +/- SD 12.9% of CD8(+) T(More)
The high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of a new form of bacteriophage T4 beta-glucosyltransferase, Escherichia coli MurG, Bacillus subtilis SpsA, bovine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 and rabbit N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I have now been solved. These glycosyltransferase structures have provided the first detailed view of the structural basis(More)
Activation and covalent attachment of complement component C3 to pathogens is the key step in complement-mediated host defense. Additionally, the antigen-bound C3d fragment interacts with complement receptor 2 (CR2; also known as CD21) on B cells and thereby contributes to the initiation of an acquired humoral response. The x-ray crystal structure of human(More)
N:-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnT I) serves as the gateway from oligomannose to hybrid and complex N:-glycans and plays a critical role in mammalian development and possibly all metazoans. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the catalytic fragment of GnT I in the absence and presence of bound UDP-GlcNAc/Mn(2+) at 1.5 and 1.8 A(More)
Rattlesnake venom lectin (RSL) from the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) is an oligomeric galactose-specific C-type lectin. The X-ray crystal structure of RSL, in complex with lactose and thiodigalactoside, at 2.2 and 2.3 A resolution, respectively, reveals a decameric protein composed of two 5-fold symmetric pentamers arranged in a(More)
  • J M Rini
  • 1995
Lectins comprise a structurally very diverse class of proteins characterized by their ability to bind carbohydrates with considerable specificity. They are found in organisms ranging from viruses and plants to humans and serve to mediate biological recognition events. Although lectins bind monosaccharides rather weakly, they employ common strategies for(More)
Galectins are a family of lectins which share similar carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) and affinity for small beta-galactosides, but which show significant differences in binding specificity for more complex glycoconjugates. We report here the x-ray crystal structure of the human galectin-3 CRD, in complex with lactose and N-acetyllactosamine, at(More)
S-Lac lectins are a family of soluble lactose-binding animal lectins, some of which have been implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions through specific carbohydrate-mediated recognition. We report here the x-ray crystal structure of a representative member of this family, the human dimeric S-Lac lectin, L-14-II, in complex with(More)
The high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of the carbohydrate recognition domain of human galectin-3 were solved in complex with N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) and the high-affinity inhibitor, methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-4-O-(3-deoxy-3-[4-methoxy-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzamido]-beta-D-galactopyranose)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, to gain insight into the basis for(More)