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Workshop participants agreed that genotoxicity tests in mammalian cells in vitro produce a remarkably high and unacceptable occurrence of irrelevant positive results (e.g. when compared with rodent carcinogenicity). As reported in several recent reviews, the rate of irrelevant positives (i.e. low specificity) for some studies using in vitro methods (when(More)
A mechanistic understanding of carcinogenic genotoxicity is necessary to determine consequences of chemical exposure on human populations and improve health risk assessments. Currently, linear dose-responses are assumed for DNA reactive compounds, ignoring cytoprotective processes that may limit permanent damage. To investigate the biological significance(More)
Mutation induction in directly exposed cells is currently regarded as the main component of the genetic risk of ionizing radiation for humans. However, recent data on the transgenerational increases in mutation rates in the offspring of irradiated parents indicate that the genetic risk could be greater than predicted previously. Here, we have analysed(More)
Several polymorphic cytochrome P-450 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes are involved in the activation and detoxification of many potential carcinogens and may therefore be important in susceptibility to cancer induction. CYP1A1 MspI, GSTM1, and GSTT1 are polymorphic enzymes and some alleles have been correlated with an increased risk of developing(More)
The marine environment receives a wide variety of chemical inputs, many of which have the potential to damage DNA or interfere with the process of cell division. Here we describe a new assay based on the early embryo and larval stages of a planktonic spawning, tube dwelling marine worm, Pomatoceros lamarckii, which for experimental purposes has the(More)
Bile acids are often refluxed into the lower oesophagus and are candidate carcinogens in the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. We show here that the secondary bile acid, deoxycholic acid (DCA), is the only one of the commonly refluxed bile acids tested here, to show genotoxicity, in terms of chromosome damage and mutation induction in the human p53(More)
The potential of the pesticide trichlorfon to induce mitotic aneuploidy has been investigated in genetically engineered human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Trichlorfon failed to induce micronuclei in the AHH-1 and MCL-5 cell lines when treated in media at normal cell culture pH (pH 7.3). Under a treatment pH of 5.5, trichlorfon exposures resulted in the(More)
Barrett's oesophagus patients accumulate chromosomal defects during the histological progression to cancer, one of the most prominent of which is the amplification of the whole of chromosome 4. We aimed to study the role that the transcription factor NF-kappaB, a candidate cancer- promoting gene, present on chromosome 4, plays in Barrett's oesophagus, using(More)
Doxorubicin, a benzanthroquinone anticancer agent, was examined for its effect on micronucleus induction in cultured human lymphocytes. A statistically significant dose-dependent increase in micronucleus frequency (P<0.001) in binucleated cells was seen and an increase in the kinetochore-positive (P<0.001) and kinetochore-negative micronuclei (P<0.001) was(More)