James M. Olcese

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The hormone melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) is synthesized primarily in the pineal gland and retina, and in several peripheral tissues and organs. In the circulation, the concentration of melatonin follows a circadian rhythm, with high levels at night providing timing cues to target tissues endowed with melatonin receptors. Melatonin receptors(More)
The neurohormone melatonin has been reported to exert anti-beta-amyloid aggregation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory actions in various in vitro and animal models. To comprehensively determine the potential for long-term melatonin treatment to protect Alzheimer's transgenic mice against cognitive impairment and development of beta-amyloid (Abeta)(More)
Neurotransmitter-driven activation of transcription factors is important for control of neuronal and neuroendocrine functions. We show with an in vivo approach that the norepinephrine cAMP-dependent rhythmic hormone production in rat pineal gland is accompanied by a temporally regulated switch in the ratio of a transcriptional activator, phosphorylated(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is observed in mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse models of familial AD. Melatonin is a potent antioxidant, can prevent toxic aggregation of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and, when taken long term, can protect against cognitive deficits in APP transgenic(More)
The biosynthesis of the hormone melatonin (MEL) by the mammalian pineal gland has been thought to be regulated strictly by stimulatory factors, most predominantly norepinephrine (NE), released from the sympathetic nerve fibers which heavily innervate the gland. Evidence from many investigators suggests that sympathetic fibers may colocalize other(More)
Although the presence of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the mammalian pineal has been characterized biochemically, the source of this nonapeptide hormone remains enigmatic. Most earlier data pointed to an extrapineal origin, although some recent evidence suggests intrapineal synthesis of AVP. The present study examined this issue using a combination of(More)
Melatonin, an indoleamine hormone secreted into circulation at night primarily by the brain's pineal gland, has been shown to have a wide variety of actions on the development and physiology of neurons in the CNS. Acting via two G-protein-coupled membrane receptors (MT1 and MT2), melatonin modulates neurogenesis, synaptic functions, neuronal cytoskeleton(More)
Limited studies of the regulation of pineal melatonin biosynthesis in ungulates indicate that it differs considerably from that in rodents. Here we have investigated several signal transduction cascades and their impact on melatonin synthesis in bovine pinealocytes. Norepinephrine increased the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) via(More)
Measurement of melatonin secretion throughout the night provides an index of net noradrenergic activity mediated by postsynaptic beta-adrenergic receptors in the pineal gland. Reduced melatonin secretion in some patients with depression might be related to reduced net noradrenergic function. However, a dysregulation in serotonin function has also been(More)