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The hormone melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) is synthesized primarily in the pineal gland and retina, and in several peripheral tissues and organs. In the circulation, the concentration of melatonin follows a circadian rhythm, with high levels at night providing timing cues to target tissues endowed with melatonin receptors. Melatonin receptors(More)
Neurotransmitter-driven activation of transcription factors is important for control of neuronal and neuroendocrine functions. We show with an in vivo approach that the norepinephrine cAMP-dependent rhythmic hormone production in rat pineal gland is accompanied by a temporally regulated switch in the ratio of a transcriptional activator, phosphorylated(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is observed in mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse models of familial AD. Melatonin is a potent antioxidant, can prevent toxic aggregation of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and, when taken long term, can protect against cognitive deficits in APP transgenic(More)
Cyclic GMP formation in the rat pinealocyte has generally been thought to involve guanylate cyclases (GC) which are activated via GTP-regulatory proteins following beta 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Recent studies have also pointed to a cytosolic GC in these cells whose activity can be elevated by nitric oxide donors. Little attention has been paid to(More)
Although the presence of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the mammalian pineal has been characterized biochemically, the source of this nonapeptide hormone remains enigmatic. Most earlier data pointed to an extrapineal origin, although some recent evidence suggests intrapineal synthesis of AVP. The present study examined this issue using a combination of(More)
In order to elucidate whether magnetic field effects on mammalian pineal function are direct, or instead indirect via retinal disturbances, acutely blinded and intact male rats were subjected to a single nocturnal magnetic stimulus. Then pineal N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content were assayed. Only in intact animals did the magnetic stimulus(More)
Limited studies of the regulation of pineal melatonin biosynthesis in ungulates indicate that it differs considerably from that in rodents. Here we have investigated several signal transduction cascades and their impact on melatonin synthesis in bovine pinealocytes. Norepinephrine increased the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) via(More)
The neurohormone melatonin has been reported to exert anti-beta-amyloid aggregation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory actions in various in vitro and animal models. To comprehensively determine the potential for long-term melatonin treatment to protect Alzheimer's transgenic mice against cognitive impairment and development of beta-amyloid (Abeta)(More)
Specific antisera, raised in rabbits, against somatostatin 1-14, somatostatin 1-28, the fragment 1-12 of somatostatin 1-28, and prosomatostatin 20-36 were used for immunohistochemistry and gel filtration of the rat retina. With all antisera, immunoreactive perikarya could be located in the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers. In the inner nuclear layer,(More)
To investigate a possible central neural influence on nocturnal pineal metabolic activity in rats, frontal transsections of the stria medullaris thalami were conducted. Enzymes involved in melatonin synthesis, i.e. N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyl-transferase, exhibited reduced activities in operated animals when compared to controls. These(More)