James M. Murphy

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The range of possibilities for future climate evolution needs to be taken into account when planning climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. This requires ensembles of multi-decadal simulations to assess both chaotic climate variability and model response uncertainty. Statistical estimates of model response uncertainty, based on observations of(More)
In the adult human, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) resident in bone marrow retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate along multiple connective tissue lineages, including cartilage. In this study, culture-expanded human MSCs (hMSCs) of 60 human donors were induced to express the morphology and gene products of chondrocytes. Chondrogenesis was(More)
Comprehensive global climate models are the only tools that account for the complex set of processes which will determine future climate change at both a global and regional level. Planners are typically faced with a wide range of predicted changes from different models of unknown relative quality, owing to large but unquantified uncertainties in the(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-induced chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow involves the rapid deposition of a cartilage-specific extracellular matrix. The sequential events in this pathway leading from the undifferentiated stem cell to a mature chondrocyte were investigated by analysis of key matrix elements.(More)
The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to suppress alloresponsiveness is poorly understood. Herein, an allogeneic mixed lymphocyte response was used as a model to investigate the mechanisms of MSC-mediated immunomodulation. Human MSC are demonstrated to express the immunosuppressive cytokines hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), interleukin (IL)-10 and(More)
Rationale: Because current findings indicate that the selectively bred alcohol-preferring P line of rats self-administers 50–200 mg% ethanol (EtOH) directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), whereas the alcohol-nonpreferring NP line does not, it is important to determine whether unselected, common stock rats would self-administer EtOH directly into the(More)
Mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) is a component of the "necrosome," the multiprotein complex that triggers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced cell death by necroptosis. To define the specific role and molecular mechanism of MLKL action, we generated MLKL-deficient mice and solved the crystal structure of MLKL. Although MLKL-deficient mice were(More)
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its projections have been implicated in the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) lines of rats were used to evaluate the reinforcing actions of ethanol in the VTA using intracranial self-administration (ICSA) operant procedures. P rats(More)
Previous climate model projections of climate change accounted for external forcing from natural and anthropogenic sources but did not attempt to predict internally generated natural variability. We present a new modeling system that predicts both internal variability and externally forced changes and hence forecasts surface temperature with substantially(More)
Intracranial self-administration (ICSA) and intracranial place conditioning (ICPC) methodologies have been mainly used to study drug reward mechanisms, but they have also been applied toward examining brain reward mechanisms. ICSA studies in rodents have established that the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a site supporting morphine and ethanol(More)