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Adrenocorticotropic hormone and alpha-, beta-, and gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormones, collectively called melanocortin peptides, exert multiple effects upon the host. These effects range from modulation of fever and inflammation to control of food intake, autonomic functions, and exocrine secretions. Recognition and cloning of five melanocortin(More)
With the rise in the field of neuroimmunomodulation research, there is increased recognition of the influence of the nervous system and neuropeptides in peripheral disease. The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a neuroimmunomodulatory agent that modulates production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibits peripheral(More)
The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and its C-terminal tripeptide alpha-MSH11-13 modulate production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibit inflammation. We examined whether systemic alpha-MSH and alpha-MSH11-13 inhibit activation of the nuclear transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), a factor that is(More)
Sodium valproate (VPA) is frequently used to treat epilepsy and convulsive disorders. Several reports have indicated that anti-epileptic drugs (AED) affect the immune system, but the mechanism has not been clear. We examined whether the commonly used AEDs, diazepam (DZP), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), and VPA, can inhibit(More)
Inflammatory processes contribute to neurodegenerative disease, stroke, encephalitis, and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Activated microglia are a source of cytokines and other inflammatory agents within the CNS and it is therefore important to control glial function in order to preserve neural cells. Melanocortin peptides are(More)
The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) modulates production of proinflammatory cytokines in brain tissue and in peripheral inflammatory cells. Transcription of the genes for these proinflammatory cytokines is regulated by the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). NF-kappaB is also activated by proinflammatory cytokines. Degradation(More)
The pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptide melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) antagonizes the fever induced by several stimuli including endotoxin, endogenous pyrogen, and certain cytokines. To determine if alpha-MSH can antagonize the pyrogenic action of recombinant IL-6 and TNF directly within the central nervous system, the cytokines were injected(More)
This survey continues a second series of compilations of data regarding changes in body temperature induced by drugs and related agents. The information listed includes the species used, the route of administration and dose of drug, the environmental temperature at which experiments were performed, the number of tests, the direction and magnitude of change(More)
alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH1-13) and its COOH-terminal tripeptide alpha-MSH11-13 (Lys Pro Val) inhibit inflammation when administered systemically. Recent evidence indicates that alpha-MSH1-13 can likewise inhibit inflammation in the skin solely via an action within the brain. Because of the potential importance of this discovery to(More)
The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) occurs in CNS tissue in neurological disorders, infection, and injury. Its excessive production is believed to contribute to local pathology, in which case modulation of TNF-alpha production should promote survival of neural tissue. The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone(More)