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Atmospheric water vapor can also be measured using GPS [Dixon and Kornreich Wolf, 1m; Bevis et aI., 1992]. PWV ranges from O. 60 mm. We show that GPS can estimate PWV with mm accuracy every 30 minutes. PWV measurements of this accuracy and frequency are useful for meteorology and hold promise to aid in the estimation of vertical watel" vapor profiles [Kuo(More)
Genomes at the species level are dynamic, with genes present in every individual (core) and genes in a subset of individuals (dispensable) that collectively constitute the pan-genome. Using transcriptome sequencing of seedling RNA from 503 maize (Zea mays) inbred lines to characterize the maize pan-genome, we identified 8681 representative transcript(More)
QTL were identified for root architectural traits in maize. Root architectural traits, including the number, length, orientation, and branching of the principal root classes, influence plant function by determining the spatial and temporal domains of soil exploration. To characterize phenotypic patterns and their genetic control, three recombinant inbred(More)
Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches provide low-cost, high-density genotype information. However, GBS has unique technical considerations, including a substantial amount of missing data and a nonuniform distribution of sequence reads. The goal of this study was to characterize technical variation using this method and to develop methods to optimize(More)
This commentary examines Genesee County (Flint) Michigan to explore whether a well-structured safety net system is able to provide low-income uninsured people adequate access to care at a reasonable cost. Genessee County is one of the more economically challenged communities in the country. This commentary explores the cost and adequacy of safety net care(More)
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are multidomain enzymes that catalyze covalent attachment of amino acids to their cognate tRNA. Cross-talk between functional domains is a prerequisite for this process. In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanism of site-to-site communication in Escherichia coli prolyl-tRNA synthetase (Ec ProRS). Earlier studies have(More)
An ultralow-standby-power technology has been developed in both 0.18-␮m and 0.13-␮m lithography nodes for embedded and standalone SRAM applications. The ultralow-leakage six-transistor (6T) SRAM cell sizes are 4.81 ␮m 2 and 2.34 ␮m 2 , corresponding respectively to the 0.18-␮m and 0.13-␮m design dimensions. The measured array standby leakage is equal to an(More)
The authors compare several methods to map the a priori tropospheric delay of global positioning system (GPS) signals from the zenith direction to lower elevations. This is commonly achieved with so-called mapping functions. Dry mapping functions are applied to the hydrostatic delay; wet mapping functions are used to map the zenith wet delay to lower(More)
Root anatomical trait variation is described for three maize RIL populations. Six quantitative trait loci (QTL) are presented for anatomical traits: root cross-sectional area, % living cortical area, aerenchyma area, and stele area. Root anatomy is directly related to plant performance, influencing resource acquisition and transport, the metabolic cost of(More)