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QTL were identified for root architectural traits in maize. Root architectural traits, including the number, length, orientation, and branching of the principal root classes, influence plant function by determining the spatial and temporal domains of soil exploration. To characterize phenotypic patterns and their genetic control, three recombinant inbred(More)
An ultralow-standby-power technology has been developed in both 0.18-␮m and 0.13-␮m lithography nodes for embedded and standalone SRAM applications. The ultralow-leakage six-transistor (6T) SRAM cell sizes are 4.81 ␮m 2 and 2.34 ␮m 2 , corresponding respectively to the 0.18-␮m and 0.13-␮m design dimensions. The measured array standby leakage is equal to an(More)
Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches provide low-cost, high-density genotype information. However, GBS has unique technical considerations, including a substantial amount of missing data and a nonuniform distribution of sequence reads. The goal of this study was to characterize technical variation using this method and to develop methods to optimize(More)
Root anatomical trait variation is described for three maize RIL populations. Six quantitative trait loci (QTL) are presented for anatomical traits: root cross-sectional area, % living cortical area, aerenchyma area, and stele area. Root anatomy is directly related to plant performance, influencing resource acquisition and transport, the metabolic cost of(More)
The authors compare several methods to map the a priori tropospheric delay of global positioning system (GPS) signals from the zenith direction to lower elevations. This is commonly achieved with so-called mapping functions. Dry mapping functions are applied to the hydrostatic delay; wet mapping functions are used to map the zenith wet delay to lower(More)
We have investigated the spectra of light-heavy quarkonia with the use of a quantum-chromodynamic potential model which is similar to that used earlier for the heavy quarkonia. An essential feature of our treatment is the inclusion of the one-loop radiative corrections to the quark-antiquark potential, which contribute significantly to the spin-splittings(More)
BACKGROUND A major challenge in the identification and development of superior feedstocks for the production of second generation biofuels is the rapid assessment of biomass composition in a large number of samples. Currently, highly accurate and precise robotic analysis systems are available for the evaluation of biomass composition, on a large number of(More)
We model the ionospheric delay of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals with high precision and use it to correct single frequency (L1) GPS baseline estimations. We find that baselines up to 30 km in length are more precisely determined using corrected L1 data than using dual frequency data. The high resolution ionospheric modeling technique (called HiRIM(More)
The decay rates of c c and b b through two-photon or two-gluon annihilations are obtained by using totally relativistic decay amplitudes and a sophisticated quantum-chromodynamic potential model for heavy quarkonia. Our results for the photonic and gluonic widths of the 1 S 0 , 3 P 0 , and the 3 P 2 states are in excellent agreement with the available(More)