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How does the visual system combine information from different depth cues to estimate three-dimensional scene parameters? We tested a maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) model of cue combination for perspective (texture) and binocular disparity cues to surface slant. By factoring the reliability of each cue into the combination process, MLE provides more(More)
A core organizing principle for studies of the brain is that distinct neural pathways mediate distinct behavioral tasks [1, 2]. When two related tasks are mediated by a common pathway, studies of one are likely to generalize to the other. Here, we test whether performance on two laboratory tasks that model object detection and identification are mediated by(More)
Several investigators have claimed that the retinal coordinates of corresponding points shift with vergence eye movements. Two kinds of shifts have been reported. First, global shifts that increase with retinal eccentricity; such shifts would cause a flattening of the horopter at all viewing distances and would facilitate fusion of flat surfaces. Second,(More)
Color vision supports two distinct visual functions: discrimination and constancy. Discrimination requires that the visual response to distinct objects within a scene be different. Constancy requires that the visual response to any object be the same across scenes. Across changes in scene, adaptation can improve discrimination by optimizing the use of the(More)
The distribution of empirical corresponding points in the two retinas has been well studied along the horizontal and the vertical meridians, but not in other parts of the visual field. Using an apparent-motion paradigm, we measured the positions of those points across the central portion of the visual field. We found that the Hering-Hillebrand deviation (a(More)
Are effects of background contrast on color appearance and sensitivity controlled by the same mechanism of adaptation? We examined the effects of background color contrast on color appearance and on color-difference sensitivity under well-matched conditions. We linked the data using Fechner's hypothesis that the rate of apparent stimulus change is(More)
A recent paper examined eye dominance with the eyes in forward and eccentric gaze [Vision Res. 41 (2001) 1743]. When observers were looking to the left, the left eye tended to dominate and when they were looking to the right, the right eye tended to dominate. The authors attributed the switch in eye dominance to extra-retinal signals associated with(More)
Color vision is useful for detecting surface boundaries and identifying objects. Are the signals used to perform these two functions processed by common mechanisms, or has the visual system optimized its processing separately for each task? We measured the effect of mean chromaticity and luminance on color discriminability and on color appearance under(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore medical students' views on support services, stigma, and teaching of wellbeing in light of their experiences of stress and distress. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING Quantitative survey of medical students at five universities in Australia and New Zealand in November 2007. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Medical students' experiences of(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently starts near the lateral ventricles, which are lined by subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitor cells that can migrate to lesions and contribute to repair. Because MS-induced inflammation may decrease SVZ proliferation and thus limit repair, we studied the role of galectin-3 (Gal-3), a proinflammatory protein. Gal-3 expression(More)