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Figs (Ficus; ca 750 species) and fig wasps (Agaoninae) are obligate mutualists: all figs are pollinated by agaonines that feed exclusively on figs. This extraordinary symbiosis is the most extreme example of specialization in a plant-pollinator interaction and has fuelled much speculation about co-divergence. The hypothesis that pollinator specialization(More)
It is thought that speciation in phytophagous insects is often due to colonization of novel host plants, because radiations of plant and insect lineages are typically asynchronous. Recent phylogenetic comparisons have supported this model of diversification for both insect herbivores and specialized pollinators. An exceptional case where contemporaneous(More)
BACKGROUND Figs and fig-pollinating wasps are obligate mutualists that have coevolved for ca. 90 million years. They have radiated together, but do not show strict cospeciation. In particular, it is now clear that many fig species host two wasp species, so there is more wasp speciation than fig speciation. However, little is known about how fig wasps(More)
We have shown previously that aberrant hippocampal (HPC) output underlies the dopamine (DA) dysfunction observed in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) developmental model of schizophrenia in the rodent. This alteration of HPC activity was proposed to result from a reduction in parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABAergic interneurons and consequent(More)
We conducted the first molecular phylogenetic study of Ficus section Malvanthera (Moraceae; subgenus Urostigma) based on 32 Malvanthera accessions and seven outgroups representing other sections of Ficus subgenus Urostigma. We used DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal and external transcribed spacers (ITS and ETS), and the(More)
Conflict procedures can be used to study the receptor mechanisms underlying the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines and other GABA(A) receptor modulators. In the present study, we first determined the efficacy and binding affinity of the benzodiazepine diazepam and recently synthesized GABA(A) receptor modulators JY-XHe-053, XHe-II-053, HZ-166,(More)
  • Joel G Turner, Jana L Gump, Chunchun Zhang, James M Cook, Douglas Marchion, Lori Hazlehurst +4 others
  • 2006
We investigated the role of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in drug resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). Human MM cell lines, and MM patient plasma cells isolated from bone marrow, were evaluated for ABCG2 mRNA expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ABCG2 protein, by Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence(More)
Figs and fig-pollinating wasps are obligate mutualists that have coevolved for over 60 million years. But when and where did pollinating fig wasps (Agaonidae) originate? Some studies suggest that agaonids arose in the Late Cretaceous and the current distribution of fig-wasp faunas can be explained by the break-up of the Gondwanan landmass. However, recent(More)
Oak galls are spectacular extended phenotypes of gallwasp genes in host oak tissues and have evolved complex morphologies that serve, in part, to exclude parasitoid natural enemies.Parasitoids and their insect herbivore hosts have coevolved to produce diverse communities comprising about a third of all animal species. The factors structuring these(More)