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other types of relationship. The result is that people's personal networks are homogeneous with regard to many sociodemographic, behavioral, and intrapersonal characteristics. Homophily limits people's social worlds in a way that has powerful implications for the information they receive, the attitudes they form, and the interactions they experience.(More)
Galls are highly specialized plant tissues whose development is induced by another organism. The most complex and diverse galls are those induced on oak trees by gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cyni-pini), each species inducing a characteristic gall structure. Debate continues over the possible adaptive signi¢cance of gall structural traits; some protect(More)
Figs (Ficus; ca 750 species) and fig wasps (Agaoninae) are obligate mutualists: all figs are pollinated by agaonines that feed exclusively on figs. This extraordinary symbiosis is the most extreme example of specialization in a plant-pollinator interaction and has fuelled much speculation about co-divergence. The hypothesis that pollinator specialization(More)
The synthesis and pharmacological properties of imidazobenzodiazepines with both high affinity and selectivity for alpha 5-containing GABAA receptors are described. Four of these compounds (5, 6, 8, and 9) inhibited [3H]flunitrazepam binding to recombinant alpha 5 beta 2 gamma 2 GABAA receptors with IC50 values between approximately 0.4 and 5 nM. These(More)
Conflict procedures can be used to study the receptor mechanisms underlying the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines and other GABA(A) receptor modulators. In the present study, we first determined the efficacy and binding affinity of the benzodiazepine diazepam and recently synthesized GABA(A) receptor modulators JY-XHe-053, XHe-II-053, HZ-166,(More)
We developed a degenerate PCR procedure to simultaneously amplify products from divergent retrotransposon families within the genomes of Anopheles mosquitoes. The procedure required cloning of multiple PCR products, but more than half of the clones subsequently sequenced were of retrotransposon origin. These included Copia-like and LINE retrotransposons, as(More)
Wolbachia form a group of intracellular bacteria that alter reproduction in their arthropod hosts. Two major phylogenetic subdivisions (A and B) of Wolbachia occur. Using a polymerase chain reaction assay we surveyed for the A and B group Wolbachia in 82 insect species from two temperate host-parasitoid communities (food webs) and a general collection of(More)
Oak gallwasps are cyclically parthenogenetic insects that induce a wide diversity of highly complex species- and generation-specific galls on oaks and other Fagaceae. Phylogenetic relationships within oak gallwasps remain to be established, while sexual and parthenogenetic generations of many species remain unpaired. Previous work on oak gallwasps has(More)
We used nuclear 28S rDNA sequence data to estimate the phylogeny of 77 leaf-mining Phyllonorycter (Gracillariidae) moth species, including all 55 British species, feeding on 44 different plant genera. There was strong support for both the monophyly of Phyllonorycter and the placement of the genus Cameraria as its sister group. Host-plant use was mapped onto(More)
The ethyl ester of beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid has a high affinity for benzodiazepine receptors in the brain. In the rhesus monkey this substance produces an acute behavioral syndrome characterized by dramatic elevations in heart rate, blood pressure, plasma cortisol, and catecholamines. The effects are blocked by benzodiazepines and the specific(More)