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Dual coding theory (DCT) explains human behavior and experience in terms of dynamic associative processes that operate on a rich network of modality-specific verbal and nonverbal (or imagery) representations. We first describe the underlying premises of the theory and then show how the basic DCT mechanisms can be used to model diverse educational phenomena.(More)
A substantial research literature documents the effects of diverse item attributes, task conditions, and participant characteristics on the case of picture naming. The authors review what the research has revealed about 3 generally accepted stages of naming a pictured object: object identification, name activation, and response generation. They also show(More)
Most sequence-learning studies have confounded different types of information, making it difficult to know precisely what is learned. Addressing many of the confounds, the current study shows that people can learn 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-order transition probabilities. Measures directly assessing awareness of the probabilities show that the knowledge is(More)
The Paivio, Yuille, and Madigan (1968) norms for 925 nouns were extended in two ways. The first extension involved the collecting of a much more extensive and diverse set of properties from original ratings and other sources. Factor analysis of 32 properties identified 9 orthogonal factors and demonstrated both the redundancy among various measures and the(More)
To shed light on the referential processes that underlie mental translation between representations of objects and words, we studied the reciprocity and determinants of naming and imaging reaction times (RT). Ninety-six subjects pressed a key when they had covertly named 248 pictures or imaged to their names. Mean naming and imagery RTs for each item were(More)
An experimental design involving sequences of m distinct events can be conceptualized as an nth-order transition probability matrix specifying the probabilities with which each of the m distinct events is to follow certain n-grams. This paper describes a general method for constructing sequences of shortest possible length that satisfy any such matrix and(More)
This paper contrasts two views of the cognitive architecture underlying numerical skills and acalculia. According to the abstract-modular theory (e.g., McCloskey, Caramazza, & Basili, 1985), number processing is comprised of independent comprehension, calculation, and production subsystems that communicate via a single type of abstract quantity code. The(More)
Findings from many areas of psychology and neuroscience indicate that inhibitory mechanisms may contribute to relationships between numerous causal variables and an equally diverse set of outcome variables. Outcome variables that implicate inhibition include measures from physiology, perception, attention, action, learning and episodic memory, semantic(More)
Many serine proteases are targets for therapeutic intervention because they often play key roles in disease. Small molecule inhibitors of serine proteases with high affinity are especially interesting as they could be used as scaffolds from which to develop drugs selective for protease targets. One such inhibitor is bis(5-amidino-2-benzimidazolyl)methane(More)