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We investigated the variation in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) gene in patients receiving patient-controlled analgesia with morphine. UGT2B7 was sequenced in phenotypic extremes (n = 12) of the distribution of morphine-6-glucuronide/morphine plasma ratios. A new -161C/T promoter variant was in complete linkage disequilibrium(More)
PURPOSE In a previous randomized trial, the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to postoperative radiotherapy proved beneficial in the treatment of childhood high-grade astrocytomas. The present study tests the hypothesis that an eight-drug adjuvant chemotherapy regimen would improve survival in such children compared with the three-drug regimen of the prior(More)
BACKGROUND The prognosis of children with high-grade gliomas is uncertain, even when clinical and histologic findings are considered. We investigated whether mutations in the TP53 gene or the degree of expression of p53 protein in high-grade gliomas is associated with progression-free survival in children with these tumors. METHODS Paraffin-embedded(More)
PURPOSE A phase II study of bevacizumab (BVZ) plus irinotecan (CPT-11) was conducted in children with recurrent malignant glioma (MG) and intrinsic brainstem glioma (BSG). PATIENTS AND METHODS Eligible patients received two doses of BVZ intravenously (10 mg/kg) 2 weeks apart and then BVZ plus CPT-11 every 2 weeks until progressive disease, unacceptable(More)
PURPOSE From 1986 to 1992, "eight-drugs-in-one-day" (8-in-1) chemotherapy both before and after radiation therapy (XRT) (54 Gy tumor/36 Gy neuraxis) was compared with vincristine, lomustine (CCNU), and prednisone (VCP) after XRT in children with untreated, high-stage medulloblastoma (MB). PATIENTS AND METHODS Two hundred three eligible patients with an(More)
BACKGROUND Current treatment for medulloblastoma, which includes postoperative radiotherapy and 1 year of chemotherapy, does not cure many children with high-risk disease. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of risk-adapted radiotherapy followed by a shortened period of dose-intense chemotherapy in children with medulloblastoma. METHODS After(More)
BACKGROUND Brain tumours rarely occur in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia after cranial radiotherapy. An unusually high frequency of brain tumours seen among children enrolled in one of our leukaemia treatment protocols, Total Therapy Study XII, prompted us to identify the potential causes of this complication. METHODS We assessed(More)
OBJECT One hundred seventy-two children with high-grade astrocytomas were treated by members of the Children's Cancer Group in a prospective randomized trial designed to evaluate the role of two chemotherapy regimens. Seventy-six percent of the patients (131 children) in whom a diagnosis of either anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme was(More)
6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate are the backbone of continuation therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In studies of oral 6MP and methotrexate, indices of chronic systemic exposure to active metabolites of these agents, namely, red blood cell (RBC) concentrations of methotrexate polyglutamates (MTXPGs) and thioguanine nucleotides(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the intellectual outcomes of children with medulloblastomas/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (MB/PNET) treated with reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy (RT) plus adjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS Forty-three children with average-risk posterior fossa MB/PNETs underwent longitudinal intelligence testing. All had been(More)