James M. Bateman

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BACKGROUND Virtual Patients (VPs) are web-based representations of realistic clinical cases. They are proposed as being an optimal method for teaching clinical reasoning skills. International standards exist which define precisely what constitutes a VP. There are multiple design possibilities for VPs, however there is little formal evidence to support(More)
OBJECTIVES Virtual patients (VPs) are online representations of clinical cases used in medical education. Widely adopted, they are well placed to teach clinical reasoning skills. International technology standards mean VPs can be created, shared and repurposed between institutions. A systematic review has highlighted the lack of evidence to support which of(More)
This work is about value-semantics of subclasses. Functions that are special reversible injections (1-to-1 functions) lead here to two subclass subconstructions in which functions control the values. We show by means of such functions that a subset or superset of the values of a class can become, in effect, its subclass. The constructions are exemplified in(More)
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