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This document is the report of a task group of the AAPM and has been prepared primarily to advise medical physicists involved in the external-beam radiation therapy of patients with thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic tumors affected by respiratory motion. This report describes the magnitude of respiratory motion, discusses radiotherapy specific problems caused(More)
Iterative methods for 3D image reconstruction have the potential to improve image quality over conventional filtered back projection (FBP) in X-ray computed tomography (CT). However, the computation burden of 3D cone-beam forward and back-projectors is one of the greatest challenges facing practical adoption of iterative methods for X-ray CT. Moreover,(More)
Respiratory motion remains a significant source of errors in treatment planning for the thorax and upper abdomen. Recently, we proposed a method to estimate two-dimensional (2-D) object motion from a sequence of slowly rotating X-ray projection views, which we called deformation from orbiting views (DOVs). In this method, we model the motion as a time(More)
The looming potential of deformable alignment tools to play an integral role in adaptive radiotherapy suggests a need for objective assessment of these complex algorithms. Previous studies in this area are based on the ability of alignment to reproduce analytically generated deformations applied to sample image data, or use of contours or bifurcations as(More)
Recent developments in modulation techniques enable conformal delivery of radiation doses to small, localized target volumes. One of the challenges in using those techniques is real-time tracking and predicting target motion, which is necessary to accommodate system latencies. For image-guided-radiotherapy (IGRT) systems, it is also desirable to minimize(More)
AAPM Task Group 58 was created to provide materials to help the medical physicist and colleagues succeed in the clinical implementation of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) in radiation oncology. This complex technology has matured over the past decade and is capable of being integrated into routine practice. However, the difficulties encountered(More)
After radiosurgery of malignant tumors, it can be difficult to discriminate between transient treatment effects, radiation necrosis, and tumor progression on post-treatment imaging. Misinterpretation of an enlarging lesion may lead to inappropriate treatment and contribute to disagreements about treatment efficacy. In an effort to clarify this problem, we(More)
The advent of dynamic radiotherapy modeling and treatment techniques requires an infrastructure to weigh the merits of various interventions (breath holding, gating, tracking). The creation of treatment planning models that account for motion and deformation can allow the relative worth of such techniques to be evaluated. In order to develop a treatment(More)
X-ray based computed tomography (CT) is among the most convenient imaging/diagnostic tools in hospitals today in terms of availability, efficiency, and cost. However, in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and various nuclear medicine imaging modalities, CT is not considered a molecular imaging modality since targeted and molecularly specific(More)
Radiographic image guidance has emerged as the new paradigm for patient positioning, target localization, and external beam alignment in radiotherapy. Although widely varied in modality and method, all radiographic guidance techniques have one thing in common--they can give a significant radiation dose to the patient. As with all medical uses of ionizing(More)