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As a result of human-to-pig transmission, pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was detected in pigs soon after it emerged in humans. In the United States, this transmission was quickly followed by multiple reassortment between the pandemic virus and endemic swine viruses. Nine reassortant viruses representing 7 genotypes were detected in commercial pig(More)
BACKGROUND Dementia drug development aims to modulate pathological processes that cause clinical syndromes. Population data (epidemiological neuropathology) will help to model and predict the potential impact of such therapies on dementia burden in older people. Presently this can only be explored through post mortem findings. We report the attributable(More)
A patient is presented who had bilateral abductor vocal fold paralysis pathologically proven to be due to multiple system atrophy (MSA) in the absence of other neurological features. MSA is a degenerative neurological condition that includes olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Shy-Drager syndrome and striatonigral degeneration. The usual predominant features of(More)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) displays notorious genetic, antigenic, and clinical variability. Little is known, however, about the nature and extent of viral variation present within naturally infected animals. By amplifying and cloning the open reading frame 5 gene from tonsils of naturally infected swine, and by sequencing(More)
After porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was detected in the United States in 2013, we tested environmental samples from trailers in which pigs had been transported. PEDV was found in 5.2% of trailers not contaminated at arrival, , suggesting that the transport process is a source of transmission if adequate hygiene measures are not implemented.
he nature and extent of clinical signs in swine herds infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vary widely. Within and between herds, some sows infected with PRRSV have abortions 3,4 and fetal death, 3,5-7 whereas others appear clinically unaffected. The reasons for this wide variation are not clear. Differences among viral(More)
Veterinary diagnostic laboratories identify and characterize influenza A viruses primarily through passive surveillance. However, additional surveillance programs are needed. To meet this need, an active surveillance program was conducted at pig farms throughout the midwestern United States. From June 2009 through December 2011, nasal swab samples were(More)
D efi ning and classifying disease is at the heart of medical practice. But the standard approach to classifi cation is slow and laborious. A new approach promises to revolutionise the way in which we classify disease. It involves the free and public sharing of information via the Internet—the so-called open-source, or, perhaps more appropriately termed, "(More)
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