James Lee Chitwood

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Formation of the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) marks the first differentiation event in mammalian development. These two cell types have completely divergent fates for the remainder of the developmental process. The molecular mechanisms that regulate ICM and TE formation are poorly characterized in horses. The objective of this study was to(More)
The mechanisms by which ethanol and inhaled anesthetics influence the nervous system are poorly understood. Here we describe the positional cloning and characterization of a new mouse mutation isolated in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) forward mutagenesis screen for animals with enhanced locomotor activity. This allele, Lightweight (Lwt), disrupts the(More)
Use of RNA-Seq presents unique benefits in terms of gene expression analysis because of its wide dynamic range and ability to identify functional sequence variants. This technology provides the opportunity to assay the developing embryo, but the paucity of biological material available from individual embryos has made this a challenging prospect. We report(More)
The identification of novel genes is critical to understanding the molecular basis of body weight. Towards this goal, we have identified secretogranin V (Scg5; also referred to as Sgne1), as a candidate gene for growth traits. Through a combination of DNA microarray analysis and quantitative PCR we identified a strong expression quantitative trait locus(More)
Removal of oocytes from their natural inhibitory follicular environment results in spontaneous resumption of meiosis independent of normal signaling events that occur in vivo. Controlling the onset of meiotic resumption via maintenance of elevated oocyte cAMP levels with adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition, and subsequent(More)
Our objective was to determine whether oxidative damage of rhesus macaque sperm induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro would affect embryo development following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Fresh rhesus macaque spermatozoa were treated with ROS as follows: 1 mM xanthine and 0.1 U/ml xanthine oxidase (XXO)(More)
Embryo morphokinetics suggests that the timing of the first embryonic cell divisions may predict the developmental potential of an embryo; however, correlations between embryonic morphokinetics and physiology are not clear. Here, we used RNA sequencing to determine the gene expression profile of in vitro-produced early- and late-dividing bovine embryos and(More)
Molecular changes occurring during mammalian oocyte maturation are partly regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation (CP) and affect oocyte quality, yet the extent of CP activity during oocyte maturation remains unknown. Single bovine oocyte RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to examine changes in transcript abundance during in vitro oocyte maturation in(More)
Straws of sex-sorted sperm are usually packaged at a low concentration (e.g., ~2.1 × 106  sperm/ml) and cost significantly more than unsorted conventional semen from the same sire. In order to maximize the efficiency of using sex-sorted sperm under in vitro fertilization conditions, the selection of an appropriate sperm separation technique is essential. In(More)