Learn More
Homeostasis, an organisms' tendency to maintain a healthy balance of the physiological state of the body, is necessary for survival. Hunger induces a motivational state to consume food. Recently, pain has been referred to as a homeostatic emotion similar to hunger or thirst in that animals are motivated to respond in a certain way that may increase their(More)
The dosimetry telescope (DOSTEL) was flown on the MIR orbital station during October 1997-January 1998. The mission average contributions to the absorbed dose rates (in water) were 126 +/- 4 microGy/d and 121 +/- 13 microGy/d for the GCR and the SAA component, respectively. The mean quality factors (ICRP60) deduced from the LET-spectra are 3.5 +/- 0.2 (GCR)(More)
The radiation exposure inside the spacecraft in low earth orbit was investigated with a telescope based on two silicon planar detectors during three NASA shuttle-to-MIR missions (inclination 51.6 deg, altitude about 380 km). Count and dose rate profiles were measured, as well as separate linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, for the galactic cosmic rays(More)
Detector packages consisting of thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs), nuclear emulsions and plastic nuclear track detectors were exposed in different locations inside spacecraft. The detector systems, which supplement each other in their registration characteristics, allow the recording of biologically relevant portions of the radiation field independently.(More)
Detector packages consisting of plastic nuclear track detectors, nuclear emulsions, and thermoluminescence detectors were exposed inside BIORACK during the Spacelab missions IML1 and IML2, in different sections of the MIR space station, and inside the Spacelab module at rack front panels or stowage lockers and in the Spacelab tunnel during D2. In addition,(More)
The dosimetric package used inside Biorack on board STS76, STS81 and STS84 comprises passive detector stacks built from plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs), thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and one or two active DOSTEL (DOSimetric TELescope) units using planar silicon detectors. Five passive detector stacks were exposed at different places inside the(More)
Seven detector packages consisting of plastic nuclear track detectors, nuclear emulsions and thermoluminescence dosimeters were exposed in different locations inside BIORACK during the IML2 mission. The detectors supplement each other in their registration characteristics and cover well the different contributions of the space radiations to the dose. In(More)
Optokinetic nystagmus and after nystagmus were studied in six amphibian species, three urodeles and three anurans. It was demonstrated that two of the urodeles, Hydromantes italicus and Salamandra salamandra, display a relatively well-developed optokinetic after nystagmus, which is less pronounced in Bombina variegata and nearly absent in Bufo bufo, Rana(More)