James L Kopp

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The radiation exposure inside the spacecraft in low earth orbit was investigated with a telescope based on two silicon planar detectors during three NASA shuttle-to-MIR missions (inclination 51.6 deg, altitude about 380 km). Count and dose rate profiles were measured, as well as separate linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, for the galactic cosmic rays(More)
Homeostasis, an organisms' tendency to maintain a healthy balance of the physiological state of the body, is necessary for survival. Hunger induces a motivational state to consume food. Recently, pain has been referred to as a homeostatic emotion similar to hunger or thirst in that animals are motivated to respond in a certain way that may increase their(More)
The dosimetry telescope (DOSTEL) was flown on the MIR orbital station during October 1997-January 1998. The mission average contributions to the absorbed dose rates (in water) were 126 +/- 4 microGy/d and 121 +/- 13 microGy/d for the GCR and the SAA component, respectively. The mean quality factors (ICRP60) deduced from the LET-spectra are 3.5 +/- 0.2 (GCR)(More)
Detector packages consisting of thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs), nuclear emulsions and plastic nuclear track detectors were exposed in different locations inside spacecraft. The detector systems, which supplement each other in their registration characteristics, allow the recording of biologically relevant portions of the radiation field independently.(More)
The dosimetric package used inside Biorack on board STS76, STS81 and STS84 comprises passive detector stacks built from plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs), thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and one or two active DOSTEL (DOSimetric TELescope) units using planar silicon detectors. Five passive detector stacks were exposed at different places inside the(More)
The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis has been reared along the Normandy coast line since the 1960s. The gonadal cycle of this mussel species shows a sharp decrease in meat quality during the winter period after spawning. This decline in meat quality is so severe that sales have to be suspended from December to July. Another species of mussel, Mytilus(More)
Plastic nuclear track detectors were used to measure the contribution of High charge Z and energy E (HZE) particles to the radiation exposure of manned space missions. Results from numerous space missions in the orbit planned for the International Space Station are compared. The measurements cover the declining phase of the last solar cycle during the past(More)
The interaction of high-energy space radiation with spacecraft materials generates a host of secondary particles, some, such as neutrons, are more biologically damaging and penetrating than the original primary particles. Before committing astronauts to long term exposure in such high radiation environments, a quantitative understanding of the exposure and(More)
In this article we describe the construction of a high throughput solid state NMR probe for a fast and reliable determination of the NMR line width of a given nuclear species within a solid material. Since the NMR line width scales with the inverse of the mobility of the studied species and hence its ionic conductivity, this approach allows a fast screening(More)
Seven detector packages consisting of plastic nuclear track detectors, nuclear emulsions and thermoluminescence dosimeters were exposed in different locations inside BIORACK during the IML2 mission. The detectors supplement each other in their registration characteristics and cover well the different contributions of the space radiations to the dose. In(More)