James L. Kennedy

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A functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism, HTTLPR, alters the risk of disease as well as brain morphometry and function. Here, we show that HTTLPR is functionally triallelic. The L(G) allele, which is the L allele with a common G substitution, creates a functional AP2 transcription-factor binding site. Expression assays in 62 lymphoblastoid(More)
The trace amine para-tyramine is structurally and functionally related to the amphetamines and the biogenic amine neurotransmitters. It is currently thought that the biological activities elicited by trace amines such as p-tyramine and the psychostimulant amphetamines are manifestations of their ability to inhibit the clearance of extracellular transmitter(More)
Smoking is a leading global cause of disease and mortality. We established the Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline study (Ox-GSK) to perform a genome-wide meta-analysis of SNP association with smoking-related behavioral traits. Our final data set included 41,150 individuals drawn from 20 disease, population and control cohorts. Our analysis confirmed an effect on(More)
Dopamine is believed to play a major role in the manifestation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which affects 3-6% of school-age children and shows evidence of familiarity. The dopamine D4 receptor, which is preferentially distributed in cortical and limbic regions of the brain, is currently of major interest because of the high degree of(More)
Currently, diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) are made on the basis of phenomenology, but information is accumulating from the neurosciences about the biological bases of these disorders. Recent studies addressing the neuropsychology, neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and molecular biology of ADHD/HKD(More)
Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major(More)
The gene for the synaptic vesicle docking fusion protein, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), has been implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on the mouse mutant strain coloboma. This neutron-irradiation induced mouse strain is hemizygous for the deletion of the SNAP-25 gene and displays(More)
BACKGROUND Neurocognitive deficits are recognized as a cardinal feature of schizophrenia, but the determinants of these deficits remain unknown. Recent reports have suggested that a functional polymorphism, Val(158)Met in exon III of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene, shares approximately 4% variance with performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.(More)
We report the cloning of a gene, intronless in its coding region, which we have named APJ. This gene was cloned using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with a set of primers designed on the basis of the conservation that members of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) have in their transmembrane (TM) regions. The putative receptor protein, APJ, shares(More)
The human dopamine D4 receptor contains a novel polymorphism within the putative third cytoplasmic loop of the protein. The polymorphism is characterized by a varying number of direct imperfect 48-bp repeats in the gene. Pharmacological characterization has suggested that this receptor is the site through which the atypical neuroleptic clozapine exerts its(More)