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Currently, diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) are made on the basis of phenomenology, but information is accumulating from the neurosciences about the biological bases of these disorders. Recent studies addressing the neuropsychology, neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and molecular biology of ADHD/HKD(More)
Obesity research suffers from an overinclusion paradigm whereby all participants with a BMI beyond a certain cutoff value (e.g., 30) are typically combined in a single group and compared to those of normal weight. There has been little attempt to identify meaningful subgroups defined by their salient biobehavioral differences. In order to address this(More)
Dopamine is believed to play a major role in the manifestation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which affects 3-6% of school-age children and shows evidence of familiarity. The dopamine D4 receptor, which is preferentially distributed in cortical and limbic regions of the brain, is currently of major interest because of the high degree of(More)
The trace amine para-tyramine is structurally and functionally related to the amphetamines and the biogenic amine neurotransmitters. It is currently thought that the biological activities elicited by trace amines such as p-tyramine and the psychostimulant amphetamines are manifestations of their ability to inhibit the clearance of extracellular transmitter(More)
The gene for the synaptic vesicle docking fusion protein, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), has been implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on the mouse mutant strain coloboma. This neutron-irradiation induced mouse strain is hemizygous for the deletion of the SNAP-25 gene and displays(More)
Abnormal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. d-serine is an important NMDAR modulator, and to elucidate the role of the d-serine synthesis enzyme serine racemase (Srr) in schizophrenia, we identified and characterized mice with an ENU-induced mutation that results in a complete loss of(More)
Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major(More)
Smoking is a leading global cause of disease and mortality. We established the Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline study (Ox-GSK) to perform a genome-wide meta-analysis of SNP association with smoking-related behavioral traits. Our final data set included 41,150 individuals drawn from 20 disease, population and control cohorts. Our analysis confirmed an effect on(More)
An association of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene located on chromosome 11p15.5 and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been demonstrated and replicated by multiple investigators. A specific allele [the 7-repeat of a 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in exon 3] has been proposed as an etiological factor in attentional(More)