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A functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism, HTTLPR, alters the risk of disease as well as brain morphometry and function. Here, we show that HTTLPR is functionally triallelic. The L(G) allele, which is the L allele with a common G substitution, creates a functional AP2 transcription-factor binding site. Expression assays in 62 lymphoblastoid(More)
The trace amine para-tyramine is structurally and functionally related to the amphetamines and the biogenic amine neurotransmitters. It is currently thought that the biological activities elicited by trace amines such as p-tyramine and the psychostimulant amphetamines are manifestations of their ability to inhibit the clearance of extracellular transmitter(More)
The gene for the synaptic vesicle docking fusion protein, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), has been implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on the mouse mutant strain coloboma. This neutron-irradiation induced mouse strain is hemizygous for the deletion of the SNAP-25 gene and displays(More)
Dopamine is believed to play a major role in the manifestation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which affects 3-6% of school-age children and shows evidence of familiarity. The dopamine D4 receptor, which is preferentially distributed in cortical and limbic regions of the brain, is currently of major interest because of the high degree of(More)
Obesity research suffers from an overinclusion paradigm whereby all participants with a BMI beyond a certain cutoff value (e.g., 30) are typically combined in a single group and compared to those of normal weight. There has been little attempt to identify meaningful subgroups defined by their salient biobehavioral differences. In order to address this(More)
Abnormal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. d-serine is an important NMDAR modulator, and to elucidate the role of the d-serine synthesis enzyme serine racemase (Srr) in schizophrenia, we identified and characterized mice with an ENU-induced mutation that results in a complete loss of(More)
Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major(More)
Smoking is a leading global cause of disease and mortality. We established the Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline study (Ox-GSK) to perform a genome-wide meta-analysis of SNP association with smoking-related behavioral traits. Our final data set included 41,150 individuals drawn from 20 disease, population and control cohorts. Our analysis confirmed an effect on(More)
The dopamine D4 receptor structurally and pharmacologically resembles the dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic that is relatively free of the adverse effects of drug-induced parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia, binds to the D4 receptor with an affinity 10 times higher than to the D2 and D3 receptors. This may explain(More)