Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity has been implicated as an important mechanism underlying a variety of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Previously we have shown that taurine has protective effects against glutamate-induced neuronal injury in cultured neurons. Here we propose that the primary underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective function… (More)
The relationship between microglial activation and dysmyelination/demyelination was analyzed in a long-lived myelin mutant, the Long Evans shaker (les) rat, which exhibits early dysmyelination and a later loss of abnormal myelin sheaths. A microglial reaction characterized by progressive morphological transformation and increasing cell density was localized… (More)
In the mammalian brain, thyroid hormones regulate myelination. Their actions are mediated by interactions with nuclear receptors that function as ligand-regulated transcription factors. Two genes, alpha and beta, encode different isoforms, of which only the beta and alpha1 isoforms are authentic nuclear triiodothyronine (T3)-receptors (NT3R). In agreement… (More)
A set of protocols for catalytic enantioselective allylic substitution (EAS) reactions that allow for additions of alkenyl units to readily accessible allylic electrophiles is disclosed. Transformations afford 1,4-dienes that contain a tertiary carbon stereogenic site and are promoted by 1.0-5.0 mol % of a copper complex of an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC).… (More)
The synthesis of a range of caged TRPV1 agonists and antagonists is reported. The photolysis characteristics of these compounds, when irradiated with a 355 nm laser, have been studied and in all cases the desired compound was produced. Photolysis of a caged TRPV1 agonist in cultured trigeminal neurons produced responses that were consistent with the… (More)
Intracellular photolysis of a novel 'caged' capsaicin analogue results in in vitro activation of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1.