James L. Blanchard

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To determine the role of CD8(+) T cells in controlling simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in vivo, we examined the effect of depleting this cell population using an anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody, OKT8F. There was on average a 99.9% reduction of CD8 cells in peripheral blood in six infected Macaca mulatta treated with OKT8F. The apparent CD8(More)
Partial deletion of the second hypervariable region from the envelope of the primary-like SF162 virus increases the exposure of certain neutralization epitopes and renders the virus, SF162DeltaV2, highly susceptible to neutralization by clade B and non-clade B human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive) sera (L. Stamatatos and C. Cheng-Mayer, J. Virol.(More)
Infection of macaques with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) provides an excellent in vivo model for examining the influence of envelope on HIV-1 pathogenesis. Infection with a pathogenic CCR5 (R5)-specific enveloped virus, SHIVSF162P, was compared with infection with the CXCR4 (X4)-specific SHIVSF33A.2. Despite comparable levels of viral(More)
Nonhuman primate models are increasingly used in the screening of candidate AIDS vaccine and immunization strategies for advancement to large-scale human trials. The predictive value of such macaque studies is largely dependent upon the fidelity of the model system in mimicking human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection in terms of viral(More)
Rhesus monkeys (RM) were inoculated intrabronchially with graded doses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains Erdman and H37Rv in an effort to produce a model of asymptomatic tuberculosis infection. Erdman strain produced active disease within 7-11 weeks regardless of dose. Low doses of H37Rv resulted in asymptomatic infections; high doses produced(More)
Histopathological preparations of cecum and colon from monkeys naturally infected with invasive Entamoeba histolytica were examined to determine the distribution of amebae in the tissues and the types of lesions, if any, associated with them. Infections were studied in 3 New World species (10 Callicebus moloch, 1 C. torquatus, and 2 Aotus trivirgatus) and 3(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) increases the risk of HIV-1 infection and, although several reports describe the interaction between these two viruses, the exact mechanism for this increased susceptibility remains unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) at the site of entry of HSV-2 and HIV-1 contribute to viral spread in the mucosa. Specialized DCs present in(More)
Through rapid serial transfer in vivo, the chimeric CCR5-tropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(SF162) evolved from a virus that is nonpathogenic and poorly transmissible across the vaginal mucosa to a variant that still maintains CCR5 usage but which is now pathogenic and establishes intravaginal infection efficiently. To determine whether(More)
The basis for the switch from CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor usage seen in approximately 50% of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype B-infected individuals as disease advances is not well understood. Among the reasons proposed are target cell limitation and better immune recognition of the CXCR4 (X4)-tropic compared to the CCR5 (R5)-tropic virus.(More)
In utero adenoviral-mediated transfer of genes via the amniotic fluid results in sustained high-efficiency expression in rodent lung and intestine. Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) fetuses were injected with adenovirus vectors encoding reporter genes at different gestational ages to evaluate feasibility and timing in primates. The fetuses developed normally(More)