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Partial deletion of the second hypervariable region from the envelope of the primary-like SF162 virus increases the exposure of certain neutralization epitopes and renders the virus, SF162DeltaV2, highly susceptible to neutralization by clade B and non-clade B human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive) sera (L. Stamatatos and C. Cheng-Mayer, J. Virol.(More)
To determine the role of CD8(+) T cells in controlling simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in vivo, we examined the effect of depleting this cell population using an anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody, OKT8F. There was on average a 99.9% reduction of CD8 cells in peripheral blood in six infected Macaca mulatta treated with OKT8F. The apparent CD8(More)
Histopathological preparations of cecum and colon from monkeys naturally infected with invasive Entamoeba histolytica were examined to determine the distribution of amebae in the tissues and the types of lesions, if any, associated with them. Infections were studied in 3 New World species (10 Callicebus moloch, 1 C. torquatus, and 2 Aotus trivirgatus) and 3(More)
Rhesus monkeys (RM) were inoculated intrabronchially with graded doses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains Erdman and H37Rv in an effort to produce a model of asymptomatic tuberculosis infection. Erdman strain produced active disease within 7-11 weeks regardless of dose. Low doses of H37Rv resulted in asymptomatic infections; high doses produced(More)
BACKGROUND Repeated use, coitus-independent microbicide gels that do not contain antiretroviral agents also used as first line HIV therapy are urgently needed to curb HIV spread. Current formulations require high doses (millimolar range) of antiretroviral drugs and typically only provide short-term protection in macaques. We used the macaque model to test(More)
Through rapid serial transfer in vivo, the chimeric CCR5-tropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(SF162) evolved from a virus that is nonpathogenic and poorly transmissible across the vaginal mucosa to a variant that still maintains CCR5 usage but which is now pathogenic and establishes intravaginal infection efficiently. To determine whether(More)
The basis for the switch from CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor usage seen in approximately 50% of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype B-infected individuals as disease advances is not well understood. Among the reasons proposed are target cell limitation and better immune recognition of the CXCR4 (X4)-tropic compared to the CCR5 (R5)-tropic virus.(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) and AIDS together present a devastating public health challenge. Over 3 million deaths every year are attributed to these twin epidemics. Annually, ∼11 million people are coinfected with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). AIDS is thought to alter the spontaneous rate of latent TB reactivation. METHODOLOGY Macaques are(More)
The difficulty in detecting rare infected cells immediately after mucosal HIV transmission has hindered our understanding of the initial cells targeted by the virus. Working with the macaque simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaginal challenge model, we developed methodology to identify discrete foci of SIV (mac239) infection 48 hr after vaginal(More)
Development of a microbicide that prevents rectal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a vital component in reducing HIV spread. We recently demonstrated that a formulation of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 in carrageenan reduced vaginal infection of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239(More)