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Through rapid serial transfer in vivo, the chimeric CCR5-tropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(SF162) evolved from a virus that is nonpathogenic and poorly transmissible across the vaginal mucosa to a variant that still maintains CCR5 usage but which is now pathogenic and establishes intravaginal infection efficiently. To determine whether(More)
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a spontaneous behavior that threatens the health and wellbeing of multiple species. In humans, the opioid antagonist naltrexone hydrochloride has been used successfully to modulate the endogenous opioid system and reduce the occurrence of SIB. This study is the first to assess the efficacy of extended-release naltrexone in(More)
Alopecia in nonhuman primates in the biomedical research setting is often attributed to compromised psychologic wellbeing. Behavioral causes, mainly hair plucking, have become the unconfirmed and exclusive default diagnosis, and the possibility that alopecia may be secondary to a primary medical or dermatologic disease is often overlooked. Although(More)
To determine the role of CD8(+) T cells in controlling simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in vivo, we examined the effect of depleting this cell population using an anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody, OKT8F. There was on average a 99.9% reduction of CD8 cells in peripheral blood in six infected Macaca mulatta treated with OKT8F. The apparent CD8(More)
Nonhuman primate models are increasingly used in the screening of candidate AIDS vaccine and immunization strategies for advancement to large-scale human trials. The predictive value of such macaque studies is largely dependent upon the fidelity of the model system in mimicking human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection in terms of viral(More)
Infection of macaques with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) provides an excellent in vivo model for examining the influence of envelope on HIV-1 pathogenesis. Infection with a pathogenic CCR5 (R5)-specific enveloped virus, SHIVSF162P, was compared with infection with the CXCR4 (X4)-specific SHIVSF33A.2. Despite comparable levels of viral(More)
Partial deletion of the second hypervariable region from the envelope of the primary-like SF162 virus increases the exposure of certain neutralization epitopes and renders the virus, SF162DeltaV2, highly susceptible to neutralization by clade B and non-clade B human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive) sera (L. Stamatatos and C. Cheng-Mayer, J. Virol.(More)
Microbicides may prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women; however, determining the optimal means of delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients remains a major challenge. We previously demonstrated that a vaginal gel containing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor MIV-150 partially protected macaques from SHIV-RT(More)
BACKGROUND Repeated use, coitus-independent microbicide gels that do not contain antiretroviral agents also used as first line HIV therapy are urgently needed to curb HIV spread. Current formulations require high doses (millimolar range) of antiretroviral drugs and typically only provide short-term protection in macaques. We used the macaque model to test(More)