James L. Blanchard

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To determine the role of CD8(+) T cells in controlling simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in vivo, we examined the effect of depleting this cell population using an anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody, OKT8F. There was on average a 99.9% reduction of CD8 cells in peripheral blood in six infected Macaca mulatta treated with OKT8F. The apparent CD8(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) increases the risk of HIV-1 infection and, although several reports describe the interaction between these two viruses, the exact mechanism for this increased susceptibility remains unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) at the site of entry of HSV-2 and HIV-1 contribute to viral spread in the mucosa. Specialized DCs present in(More)
Anti-HIV microbicides are being investigated in clinical trials and understanding how promising strategies work, coincident with demonstrating efficacy in vivo, is central to advancing new generation microbicides. We evaluated Carraguard and a new generation Carraguard-based formulation containing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)(More)
BACKGROUND Repeated use, coitus-independent microbicide gels that do not contain antiretroviral agents also used as first line HIV therapy are urgently needed to curb HIV spread. Current formulations require high doses (millimolar range) of antiretroviral drugs and typically only provide short-term protection in macaques. We used the macaque model to test(More)
BACKGROUND Sigma H (sigH) is a major Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) stress response factor. It is induced in response to heat, oxidative stress, cell wall damage, and hypoxia. Infection of macrophages with the Δ-sigH mutant generates more potent innate immune response than does infection with Mtb. The mutant is attenuated for pathology in mice. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection enhances the transmission and acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This occurs in symptomatic and asymptomatic stages of HSV-2 infection, suggesting that obvious herpetic lesions are not required to increase HIV spread. An animal model to investigate the underlying causes of the(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global pandaemic, partially due to the failure of vaccination approaches. Novel anti-TB vaccines are therefore urgently required. Here we show that aerosol immunization of macaques with the Mtb mutant in SigH (MtbΔsigH) results in significant recruitment of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) as well as CD4(+) and(More)
BACKGROUND The BCG vaccine is ineffective against adult tuberculosis. Hence, new antituberculosis vaccines are needed. Correlates of protection against tuberculosis are not known. We studied the effects of BCG vaccination on gene expression in tuberculosis granulomas using macaques. METHODS Macaques were BCG-vaccinated or sham-vaccinated and then(More)
Several studies suggest that progesterone and estrogens may affect HIV transmission in different, possibly opposing ways. Nonetheless, a direct comparison of their effects on the mucosal immune system has never been done. We hypothesize that sex hormones might impact the availability of cells and immune factors important in early stages of mucosal(More)
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) infect human and murine dendritic cells (DCs) and interfere with their immunostimulatory functions in culture. HSV-2 infection increases human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread in patients, and DCs also promote HIV infection. We have studied these topics in rhesus macaque monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) to set the stage for(More)