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Flow-through chip thermocyclers can be used in miniaturized rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) despite their high surface to volume ratio of samples. We demonstrated that a thermocycler made of silicon and glass chips and containing thin film transducers for heating and temperature control can be adapted to the amplification of various DNA templates of(More)
In an attempt to mimic everyday activities that are performed in 3-dimensional environments, exercise programs have been designed to integrate training of the trunk muscles with training of the extremities. Many believe that the most effective way to recruit the core stabilizing muscles is to execute traditional exercise movements on unstable surfaces.(More)
Glycine-betaine (GB) stabilizes folded protein structure because of its unfavorable thermodynamic interactions with amide oxygen and aliphatic carbon surface area exposed during protein unfolding. However, GB can attenuate nucleic acid secondary structure stability, although its mechanism of destabilization is not currently understood. Here we quantify GB(More)
Automated classification of retinal vessels in fundus images is the first step towards measurement of retinal characteristics that can be used to screen and diagnose vessel abnormalities for cardiovascular and retinal disorders. This paper presents a novel approach to vessel classification to compute the artery/vein ratio (AVR) for all blood vessel segments(More)
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