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The authors conducted a 2-year, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy field trial of live, attenuated, cold-adapted, trivalent influenza vaccine administered by nasal spray to children 15-71 months old. Overall, vaccine was 92% efficacious at preventing culture-confirmed infection by influenza A/H3N2 and influenza B. Because influenza(More)
The emergence of shared symbol systems is considered to be a pivotal moment in human evolution and human development. These changes are normally explained by reference to changes in people's internal cognitive processes. We present 2 experiments which provide evidence that changes in the external, collaborative processes that people use to communicate can(More)
PURPOSE To determine contrast enhancement after cerebral infarction at T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with delayed, gadolinium-enhanced, and magnetization transfer (MT) techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten patients aged 40-81 years with recent infarctions (< 7 days) were prospectively studied at MR imaging. Gadoteridol (0.1 mmol/kg [standard(More)
This paper describes the results of corpus and experimental investigation into the factors that affect the way clarification questions in dialogue are interpreted, and the way they are responded to. We present some results from an investigation using the BNC which show some general correlations between clarification request type, likelihood of answering,(More)
BACKGROUND Influenzavirus vaccine is used infrequently in healthy children, even though the rates of influenza in this group are high. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a live attenuated, cold-adapted, trivalent influenzavirus vaccine in children 15 to 71 months old. METHODS Two hundred eighty-eight children were(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of revaccination of children with live attenuated influenza vaccine. STUDY DESIGN A 2-year multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, efficacy field trial of live attenuated, cold-adapted trivalent influenza vaccine administered by nasal spray to children. This report summarizes year 2(More)
Live attenuated, cold-adapted (ca) monovalent and bivalent influenza A vaccines were evaluated in seronegative infants (ages 6-18 months) in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess safety and immunogenicity. A total of 182 seronegative subjects received a single intranasal dose (10(6.2) TCID50) of ca A/Kawasaki/9/86 (H1N1) or ca A/Los Angeles/2/87(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the safety and immunogenicity of three doses of a five-valent (types 6B, 23F, 14, 18C, and 19F) pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) among children younger than 2 years who are and are not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS A convenience sample of 18 HIV-infected children 2 years and younger (mean, 12.9 months)(More)
A new technique for integrating experimental manipulations into text-based, synchronous dialogue is introduced. This method supports fine-grained, systematic transformation of conversational turns and the introduction of 'artificial' probe turns and turn sequences. It can be used to introduce manipulations that are sensitive to aspects of the local(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether a visually apparent increase in the anteroposterior diameter of the spinal canal ("wide canal sign") can be used reliably to differentiate degenerative from isthmic spondylolisthesis on midline sagittal MR images. We hypothesized that the wide canal sign would be present only in isthmic(More)