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A concept for the optimization of nonlinear functions using particle swarm methodology is introduced. The evolution of several paradigms is outlined, and an implementation of one of the paradigms is discussed. Benchmark testing of the paradigm is described, and applications, including nonlinear function optimization and neural network training, are… (More)

- Maurice Clerc, James Kennedy
- IEEE Trans. Evolutionary Computation
- 2002

The particle swarm is an algorithm for finding optimal regions of complex search spaces through the interaction of individuals in a population of particles. Even though the algorithm, which is based on a metaphor of social interaction, has been shown to perform well, researchers have not adequately explained how it works. Further, traditional versions of… (More)

The optimization of nonlinear functions using particle swarm methodology is described. Implementations of two paradigms are discussed and compared, including a recently developed locally oriented paradigm. Benchmark testing of both paradigms is described, and applications, including neural network training and robot task learning, are proposed.… (More)

This paper presents particle swarm optimization based on learning from winner particle. (PSO-WS). Instead of considering gbest and pbest particle for position update, each particle considers its distance from immediate winner to update its position. Only winner particle follow general velocity and position update equation. If this strategy performs well for… (More)

- Daniel Bratton, James Kennedy
- 2007 IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium
- 2007

Particle swarm optimization has become a common heuristic technique in the optimization community, with many researchers exploring the concepts, issues, and applications of the algorithm. In spite of this attention, there has as yet been no standard definition representing exactly what is involved in modern implementations of the technique. A standard is… (More)

- Rui Mendes, James Kennedy, José Neves
- IEEE Trans. Evolutionary Computation
- 2004

The canonical particle swarm algorithm is a new approach to optimization, drawing inspiration from group behavior and the establishment of social norms. It is gaining popularity, especially because of the speed of convergence and the fact that it is easy to use. However, we feel that each individual is not simply influenced by the best performer among his… (More)

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has undergone many changes since its introduction in 1995. As researchers have learned about the technique, they have derived new versions, developed new applications, and published theoretical studies of the effects of the various parameters and aspects of the algorithm. This paper comprises a snapshot of particle swarming… (More)

- James Kennedy
- SIS
- 2003

- James Kennedy, Rui Mendes
- 2001

The effects of various population topologies on the particle swarm algorithm were systematically investigated. Random graphs were generated to specifications, and their performance on several criteria was compared. What makes a good population structure? We discovered that previous assumptions may not have been correct.

A multimodal problem generator was used to test three versions of genetic algorithm and the binary particle swarm algorithm in a factorial time-series experiment. Specific strengths and weaknesses of the various algorithms were identified.