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Patient and neuroimaging studies indicate that complex reasoning tasks are associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the process of relational integration, or considering multiple relations simultaneously, is a component process of complex reasoning that selectively recruits PFC. We used fMRI to examine brain(More)
Reasoning and problem solving depend on the ability to represent and integrate complex relationships among stimuli. For example, deciding whether an animal is dangerous requires integrating information about the type of animal, its size, its distance from oneself, and one's proximity to shelter. Relational complexity increases with the number of such(More)
The prefrontal cortex is essential for the temporal integration of sensory information in behavioural and linguistic sequences. Such information is commonly encoded in more than one sense modality, notably sight and sound. Connections from sensory cortices to the prefrontal cortex support its integrative function. Here we present the first evidence that(More)
The activity of single neurons was recorded extracellularly from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DPC) of monkeys during the performance of a cross-modal audio-visual short-term memory task. Cells in DPC show sustained elevated firing levels (higher than spontaneous discharge) during the retention of the auditory stimulus. In some cells this elevated firing(More)
Goal-directed behavior requires cognitive control to regulate the occurrence of conflict. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been suggested in detecting response conflict during various conflict tasks. Recent findings, however, have indicated not only that two distinct subregions of dACC are involved in conflict processing but also that the(More)
In an effort to clarify how deductive reasoning is accomplished, an fMRI study was performed to observe the neural substrates of logical reasoning and mathematical calculation. Participants viewed a problem statement and three premises, and then either a conclusion or a mathematical formula. They had to indicate whether the conclusion followed from the(More)
The fundamental relations that underlie cognitive comparisons— " same " and " different " —can be defined at multiple levels of abstraction, which vary in relational complexity. We compared response times to decide whether or not two sequentially-presented patterns, each composed of two pairs of colored squares, were the same at three levels of abstraction:(More)
Raven's Progressive Matrices is a widely used test for assessing intelligence and reasoning ability (Raven, Court, & Raven, 1998). Since the test is nonverbal, it can be applied to many different populations and has been used all over the world (Court & Raven, 1995). However, relatively few matrices are in the sets developed by Raven, which limits their use(More)
Cheng and Holyoak (1985) proposed that realistic reasoning in deontic contexts is based on pragmatic schemas such as those for assessing compliance with or violation of permission and obligation rules, and that the evocation of these schemas can facilitate performance in Wason's (1966) selection task. The inferential rules in such schemas are intermediate(More)