James K . Bowmaker

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Microspectrophotometric examination of the retinal photoreceptors of the budgerigar (shell parakeet), Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittaciformes) and the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata (Passeriformes), demonstrate the presence of four, spectrally distinct classes of single cone that contain visual pigments absorbing maximally at about 565, 507, 430-445 and(More)
The visual pigments of vertebrates evolved about 500 million years ago, before the major evolutionary step of the development of jaws. Four spectrally distinct classes of cone opsin evolved through gene duplication, followed by the rod opsin class that arose from the duplication of the middle-wave-sensitive cone opsin. All four cone classes are present in(More)
Cichlid fish of the East African Rift Lakes are renowned for their diversity and offer a unique opportunity to study adaptive changes in the visual system in rapidly evolving species flocks. Since color plays a significant role in mate choice, differences in visual sensitivities could greatly influence and even drive speciation of cichlids. Lake Malawi(More)
The violet- and ultraviolet-sensitive visual pigments of birds belong to the same class of pigments as the violet-sensitive (so-called blue) pigments of mammals. However, unlike the pigments from mammals and other vertebrate taxa which, depending on species, have lambda(max) values of either around 430 nm or around 370 nm, avian pigments are found with(More)
The evolution of cone opsin genes is characterized by a dynamic process of gene birth and death through gene duplication and loss. However, the forces governing the retention and death of opsin genes are poorly understood. African cichlid fishes have a range of ecologies, differing in habitat and foraging style, which make them ideal for examining the(More)
The squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) exhibits a polymorphism of colour vision: some animals are dichromatic, some trichromatic, and within each of these classes there are subtypes that resemble the protan and deutan variants of human colour vision. For each of ten individual monkeys we have obtained (i) behavioural measurements of colour vision and (ii)(More)
The shortwave-sensitive SWS1 class of vertebrate visual pigments range in lambda(max) from the violet (385-445 nm) to the ultraviolet (UV) (365-355 nm), with UV-sensitivity almost certainly ancestral. In birds, however, the UV-sensitive pigments present in a number of species have evolved secondarily from an avian violet-sensitive (VS) pigment. All avian VS(More)
1. Microspectrophotometric measurements have been made of the photopigments of individual rods and cones from the retina of a man. The measuring beam was passed transversely through the isolated outer segments. 2. The mean absorbance spectrum for rods (n = 11) had a peak at 497.6 +/- 3.3 nm and the mean transverse absorbance was 0.035 +/- 0.007. 3. Three(More)
Microspectrophotometric analysis of the visual receptors of "yearling" brown trout, Salmo trutta, revealed three cone types, double cones with visual pigments absorbing maximally at about 600 and 535 nm, and two types of single cone with lambda max at about 440 and 355 nm. Two-year-old fish did not possess the u.v. cone cells. Microscopical analysis of the(More)