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Mitochondria from all plants, many fungi and some protozoa contain a cyanide-resistant, alternative oxidase that functions in parallel with cytochrome c oxidase as the terminal oxidase on the electron transfer chain. Characterization of the structural and potential regulatory features of the alternative oxidase has advanced considerably in recent years. The(More)
The alternative oxidase (AOX) of plant mitochondria transfers electrons from the ubiquinone pool to oxygen without energy conservation. AOX can use reductant in excess of cytochrome pathway capacity, preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation from an over-reduced ubiquinone pool, and thus may be involved in acclimation to oxidative stresses. The AOX(More)
Water is crucial to plant growth and development. Environmental water deficiency triggers an osmotic stress signalling cascade, which induces short-term cellular responses to reduce water loss and long-term responses to remodel the transcriptional network and physiological and developmental processes. Several signalling components that have been identified(More)
Two Cys residues, Cys(I) and Cys(II), are present in most plant alternative oxidases (AOXs). Cys(I) inactivates AOX by forming a disulfide bond with the corresponding Cys(I) residue on the adjacent subunit of the AOX homodimer. When reduced, Cys(I) associates with alpha-keto acids, such as pyruvate, to activate AOX, an effect mimicked by charged amino acid(More)
The homodimeric cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase of plant mitochondria reduces oxygen to water without forming ATP. Arabidopsis thaliana alternative oxidase AOX1a is stimulated by pyruvate or other alpha-keto acids associating with a regulatory cysteine at position 78, by succinate in a serine-78 mutant, and by site-directed mutation of position 78 to(More)
The alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway of plant mitochondria uncouples respiration from mitochondrial ATP production and may ameliorate plant performance under stressful environmental conditions, such as cold temperatures, by preventing excess accumulation of reactive oxygen species. We tested this model in whole tissues by growing AtAOX1a-transformed(More)
In addition to possessing multiple NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, most plant mitochondria contain a cyanide- and antimycin-insensitive alternative terminal oxidase. Although the general characteristics of this terminal oxidase have been known for a considerable number of years, the mechanism by which it is regulated is unclear and until recently there has been(More)
The cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase of plant mitochondria is a homodimeric protein whose activity can be regulated by a redox-sensitive intersubunit sulfhydryl/disulfide system and by alpha-keto acids. After determining that the Arabidopsis alternative oxidase possesses the redox-sensitive sulfhydryl/disulfide system, site-directed mutagenesis of an(More)
Two factors known to regulate plant mitochondrial cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase activity, pyruvate and the redox status of the enzyme's intermolecular disulfide bond, were shown to differently affect activity in isolated soybean seedling mitochondria. Pyruvate stimulated alternative oxidase activity at low levels of reduced ubiquinone, shifting the(More)