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We describe here a new strategy for the treatment of stroke, through the inhibition of NAALADase (N-acetylated-alpha-linked-acidic dipeptidase), an enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of the neuropeptide NAAG (N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate) to N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. We demonstrate that the newly described NAALADase inhibitor 2-PMPA(More)
Excessive activation of excitatory amino acid receptors has been implicated in the neuronal degeneration caused by ischemia, hypoglycemia, and prolonged seizures. We have observed directly the time course and regional vulnerability of hippocampal neurons to glutamate receptor-mediated injury in organotypic hippocampal cultures, a preparation which combines(More)
Profound hypoglycemia selectively damages CA1 and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. We have examined the time course of hippocampal neuronal injury in organotypic cultures following in vitro "hypoglycemia," using the fluorescent vital dye propidium iodide to observe directly the regional distribution of early neuronal membrane injury in living cultures.(More)
Glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) are considered to be the neurotransmitters of the optic pathway in submammalian species, but their roles in mammals is uncertain. Recently, N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) has been proposed as a neurotransmitter in mammalian optic pathway; however, the release of endogenous NAAG on stimulation of the optic pathway has(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The hippocampus demonstrates a regional pattern of vulnerability to ischemic injury that depends on its characteristic differentiation and intrinsic connections. We now describe a model of ischemic injury using organotypic hippocampal culture, which preserves the anatomic differentiation of the hippocampus in long-term tissue culture.(More)
In some animal models of ischemia, neuronal degeneration can be prevented by the selective antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subtype, suggesting that glutamate released during ischemia causes injury by activating NMDA receptors. The rat hippocampal slice preparation was used as an in vitro model to study the pharmacology of(More)
GCP II inhibition decreases extracellular excitotoxic glutamate and increases extracellular NAAG, both of which provide neuroprotection. We have demonstrated with our potent and selective GCP II inhibitors efficacy in models of stroke, ALS and neuropathic pain. GCP II inhibition may have significant potential benefits over existing glutamate-based(More)
We previously reported that inhibition of the brain enzyme N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase; glutamate carboxypeptidase II) robustly protects cortical neurons from ischemic injury. Since NAALADase hydrolyzes N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) to glutamate we hypothesized that inhibiting NAALADase would both decrease glutamate and(More)
Organotypic cultures of the brain provide a unique opportunity to directly examine the regional vulnerability of specific brain regions like the hippocampus. Two well-characterized models of oxidative stress were used to examine the regional vulnerability of the hippocampus. Endogenous oxidative stress was induced by blocking synthesis of the endogenous(More)
In some animal models of reversible ischemia, there is a therapeutic window during early recovery when glutamate receptor antagonists can rescue neurons from injury. We have previously reported that organotypic cultures of the hippocampus can be protected by NMDA-receptor antagonists during recovery from a brief period of simulated ischemia. To model(More)