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We describe here a new strategy for the treatment of stroke, through the inhibition of NAALADase (N-acetylated-alpha-linked-acidic dipeptidase), an enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of the neuropeptide NAAG (N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate) to N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. We demonstrate that the newly described NAALADase inhibitor 2-PMPA(More)
Profound hypoglycemia selectively damages CA1 and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. We have examined the time course of hippocampal neuronal injury in organotypic cultures following in vitro "hypoglycemia," using the fluorescent vital dye propidium iodide to observe directly the regional distribution of early neuronal membrane injury in living cultures.(More)
Excessive activation of excitatory amino acid receptors has been implicated in the neuronal degeneration caused by ischemia, hypoglycemia, and prolonged seizures. We have observed directly the time course and regional vulnerability of hippocampal neurons to glutamate receptor-mediated injury in organotypic hippocampal cultures, a preparation which combines(More)
Glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) are considered to be the neurotransmitters of the optic pathway in submammalian species, but their roles in mammals is uncertain. Recently, N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) has been proposed as a neurotransmitter in mammalian optic pathway; however, the release of endogenous NAAG on stimulation of the optic pathway has(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The hippocampus demonstrates a regional pattern of vulnerability to ischemic injury that depends on its characteristic differentiation and intrinsic connections. We now describe a model of ischemic injury using organotypic hippocampal culture, which preserves the anatomic differentiation of the hippocampus in long-term tissue culture.(More)
BACKGROUND GPI 15715 is a new water-soluble prodrug that is hydrolyzed to release propofol. The objectives of this crossover study in volunteers were to investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GPI 15715 in comparison with propofol emulsion. METHODS In two separate sessions, nine healthy male volunteers (19-35 yr, 70-86 kg) received GPI(More)
GPI 15715 is the first water-soluble propofol prodrug that has been studied in humans. Present propofol lipid formulations have well known undesirable properties, for example, pain on injection and increased triglyceride concentrations. We investigated whether GPI 15715 is suitable to achieve and maintain moderate sedation for 2 h. Six male and six female(More)
In some animal models of ischemia, neuronal degeneration can be prevented by the selective antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subtype, suggesting that glutamate released during ischemia causes injury by activating NMDA receptors. The rat hippocampal slice preparation was used as an in vitro model to study the pharmacology of(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE We studied the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GPI 15715 (Aquavan injection), a new water-soluble prodrug metabolized to propofol by hydrolysis. METHODS Nine adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (398 +/- 31 g) received a bolus dose of 40 mg GPI 15715. The plasma concentrations of GPI 15715 and propofol were determined from(More)
Acidosis is a universal response of tissue to ischemia. In the brain, severe acidosis has been linked to worsening of cerebral infarction. However, milder acidosis can have protective effects. As part of our investigations of the therapeutic window in our neuronal tissue culture model of ischemia, we investigated the effects of acidosis during recovery from(More)