James J. Schroeder

Learn More
The recovery of soil mineral nitrogen (N) by crops, and its subsequent utilisation for dry matter (DM) production may be increased when the application of N is postponed until after crop emergence. The significance of this strategy for silage maize was studied in nine field experiments on Dutch sandy soils from 1983 to 1988. In five experiments the effect(More)
Attention has focused on the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) as a major mediator of acute-phase protein synthesis in hepatocytes in response to infection and tissue injury. We have evaluated the effects of IL-6 and IL-1 alpha as well as extracellular zinc and glucocorticoid hormone on metallothionein gene expression and cellular zinc accumulation in rat(More)
Hepatocytes were cultured with Waymouth's media containing zinc at concentrations of 1 (the endogenous zinc concentration of basal medium), 16 and 48 mumols Zn/L to examine the effects of extracellular zinc on a variety of zinc-related functions. The zinc concentrations were chosen with the intention of simulating zinc-deficient, adequate and excess(More)
Manures supply nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of application. This N must be taken into account for agronomic and environmental reasons. From 2002 to 2006 we conducted a field experiment on a sandy soil in The Netherlands (52°03″N, 6°18″E) to better quantify this residual N effect. Treatments comprised different time series of mineral fertilizer N or(More)
Dutch regulations for ammonia emission require farmers to inject slurry into the soil (shallow) or to apply it in narrow bands at the surface. For one commercial dairy farm in the Netherlands it was hypothesized that its alternative farming strategy, including low-protein feeding and surface spreading, could be an equally effective tool for ammonia emission(More)
Field experiments with silage maize during eight years on a sandy soil in The Netherlands, showed that dicyandiamide (DCD) addition to autumn-applied cattle slurry retarded nitrification, thus reducing nitrate losses during winter. Spring-applied slurry without DCD, however, was on average associated with even lower losses and higher maize dry matter(More)
To examine the mechanisms of holo-caeruloplasmin biosynthesis, we measured the serum caeruloplasmin concentration and oxidase activity, hepatic caeruloplasmin mRNA content and hepatocyte caeruloplasmin biosynthesis and secretion in normal and copper-deficient rats. Copper deficiency resulted in a near-complete loss of serum caeruloplasmin oxidase activity,(More)
A computer simulation model of the turnover of organic matter in soil was adapted to simulate the change in soil organic C and N contents of soil during several years following annual additions of farm slurry to maize fields. The model proved successful in estimating the build-up of both C and N in soil and the leaching of N to ground-water in response to(More)
Nitrogen (N) remaining as inorganic ('mineral') soil N at crop harvest (N(minH)) contributes to nitrate leaching. N(minH) data from 20 (grass) and 78 (maize) experiments were examined to identify main determinants of N(minH). N-rate (A) explained 51% (grass) and 34% (maize) of the variance in N(minH). Best models included in addition crop N-offtake (U),(More)