James J. Schmidt

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Type A botulinum neurotoxin, a zinc-dependent endoproteinase that selectively cleaves the neuronal protein SNAP-25, can also cleave relatively short peptides. We found that bovine and other serum albumins stimulated the type A-catalyzed hydrolysis of synthetic peptide substrates, through a direct effect on the kinetic constants of the reaction. Furthermore,(More)
The seven botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are zinc metalloproteases that cleave neuronal proteins involved in neurotransmitter release and are among the most toxic natural products known. High-throughput BoNT assays are needed for use in antibotulinum drug discovery and to characterize BoNT protease activities. Compared to other proteases, BoNTs exhibit(More)
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cleave neuronal proteins responsible for neurotransmitter release, causing the neuroparalytic disease botulism. BoNT serotypes B, D, F and G cleave and inactivate vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP), each at a unique peptide bond. The specificity of BoNTs depends on the mode of substrate recognition. We have(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are zinc metalloproteases that cleave and inactivate cellular proteins essential for neurotransmitter release. Because the paralytic effect of BoNT is a consequence of its enzymatic activity, selective inhibitors may be useful as drugs or as tools for further research. To expedite inhibitor discovery, we developed(More)
The peptide N-acetyl-CRATKML-amide is an effective inhibitor of type A botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT A) protease activity [Schmidt et al., FEBS Lett. 435 (1998) 61-64]. To improve inhibitor binding, the peptide was modified by replacing cysteine with other sulfhydryl-containing compounds. Ten peptides were synthesized. One peptide adapted the structure of(More)
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A is the most lethal of all known toxins. Here, we report the crystal structure, along with SAR data, of the zinc metalloprotease domain of BoNT/A bound to a potent peptidomimetic inhibitor (K(i)=41 nM) that resembles the local sequence of the SNAP-25 substrate. Surprisingly, the inhibitor adopts a helical conformation around(More)
The ultimate molecular action of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a Zn-dependent endoproteolytic activity on one of the three SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins. There are seven serotypes (A-G) of BoNT having distinct cleavage sites on the SNARE substrates. The proteolytic activity is located on the(More)
The 2.7 A structure of the tetanus neurotoxin receptor binding fragment Hc reveals a jelly-roll domain and a beta-trefoil domain. Hc retains the unique transport properties of the holotoxin and is capable of eliciting a protective immunological response against the full length holotoxin.
The most basic phospholipase A2 (PLA2), VRV-PL-VIIIa, was purified from (Sri Lankan) Vipera russelli venom. It is a major component of the venom, contributing over 40% to the whole venom PLA2 activity. The purity of VRV-PL-VIIIa was ascertained by electrophoresis and by reverse phase high-pressure liquid-chromatography (RP-HPLC). VRV-PL-VIIIa had an(More)
Type A botulinum neurotoxin catalyzed the hydrolysis of synthetic peptides based on the sequence of the 25-kD synaptosomal protein SNAP-25. In each peptide, the toxin cleaved at a single glutaminyl-arginine bond corresponding to residues 197 and 198 of SNAP-25, confirming earlier reports on the enzymatic specificity of the toxin in synaptosomal(More)